Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas Begins

Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas Begins ...
parseed.ir 30/04/1982 History

Keywords:#Ahvaz, #Algiers, #Algiers_Agreement, #Arab, #Arvand, #Ashraf, #Ashura, #Basij, #Beit_ol-Moqaddas, #Boeing, #Border, #Boroujerd, #Fajr, #IRGC, #Imam, #Imam_Hossein, #Imam_Reza, #Iran, #Iran_Air, #Iran_Air_Force, #Iran_Army, #Iran-Iraq, #Iranian, #Iran–Iraq_War, #Iraq, #Iraqi, #Islamic, #Islamic_Republic, #Islamic_Republic_of_Iran, #Islamic_Republic_of_Iran_Air_Force, #Islamic_Republic_of_Iran_Army, #Islamic_Republic_of_Iran_Navy, #Islamic_Revolution, #Karbala, #Khorasan, #Khorramshahr, #Najaf, #Operation_Beit_ol-Moqaddas, #Parseed, #Parseed.ir, #Pasdaran, #Persian, #President, #Qazvin, #Qods, #Revolution, #Saddam, #Saddam_Hussein, #September, #Shatt_al-Arab, #Susangerd, #Zolfaqar

Map of Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas

* * * Operation Beit-ol-Moqaddas (Persian: عملیات بیت‌المقدس‎‎) was an Iranian operation conducted during the Iran–Iraq War. The operation was a success, in as so far as it achieved its standing aim of liberation of Khorramshahr and pushing Iraqi troops back to the border. This operation, coupled with Operation Tariq al-Qods, and Operation Undeniable Victory, succeeded in evicting Iraqi troops from southern Iran and was the turning point in the war, as Iran gained the momentum.
Prelude
On September 22, 1980, because of his desire that Iraq should have complete dominance over the Shatt al-Arab(or the Arvand Rūd) waterway, Iraqi President Saddam Hussein declared war against Iran and launched a land invasion of southern Iran, although operations did occur elsewhere on the Iran-Iraq border. After achieving successes due to the post-Revolution military and political chaos in Iran, Saddam Hussein ordered that the Iraqi troops 'dig-in' on the front line. He hoped that this would show the world that he cared about the fate of the Iranian people, and that he was only concerned with achieving his aim of securing the entire Shatt al-Arab waterway; which had been under dispute since the 1975 Algiers Agreement had been under some strain. However, since the Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1979; Iraq had felt that it was necessary to assume what it wanted through force, and that it was no use trying to negotiate with the revolutionary Iranian government.
Once the Iraqi forces had settled, the Iranians were planning a series of operations designed to evict the Iraqis from southern Iran, of which Operation Tariq al-Qods was one.
Battle
The Iranians attacked, with some 70,000 fighters in the AhvazSusangerd area. The Iraqi forces in the area withdrew, and strengthened the defenses of Khorramshahr.
The Iraqis launched a counter-offensive on 20 May. However, despite its scale, the Iranians were able to repulse the attack.
On 22 May, the Iranians liberated Khorramshahr; the vitally strategically and symbollicaly important Iranian city whose capture by Iraq had been the low-point of Iranian fortunes in the early days of the war
The Iraqis were ordered to retreat, although many had done when Khorramshar had fallen, back into Iraq. The Iranians captured 15,000-19,000 Iraqi troops and a substantial amount of Iraqi military hardware in Khorramshahr.
The numbers of casualties sustained by Iraq and Iran are unknown; but it is likely that there was not marked a difference between both sides. Iranian forces was a combination of regular Army together with Pasdaran and Basij fighters, which it would come to rely on later in the war from 1983 onwards.
The commander of the Iraqi forces in the city, Colonel Ahmad Zeidan, attempted to flee, but was trapped in a minefield which was set up on his orders and killed when he stepped on a mine.
Units
Iran
Iranian units involved in the operation were as follows: Each IRGC battalion was consisted of 300 Basij volunteers at most, while each Army battalion was around 2.5 times bigger. However, the number of battalions in each IRGC brigade was bigger than those of the Army.
Karbala Central Command (under command of Sardar Mohsen Rezaei and Amir Ali Sayyad Shirazi):
Nasr Command: (under command of Sardar Hassan Baqeri and Amir Hossein Hassani Saadi)
IRGC:
7th "Vali-e-Asr" Brigade (1st Nasr)
27th "Mohammad Rasulollah" Brigade (2nd Nasr)
46th "Fajr" Brigade (3rd Nasr)
22nd "Badr" Brigade (5th Nasr)
One battalion from 30th Armoured Brigade
Army:
21st "Hamzeh" Division
1st Brigade (1st Nasr)
2nd Brigade (2nd Nasr)
3rd Brigade (3rd Nasr)
4th Brigade (4th Nasr)
23rd Special Forces Brigade (NOWHED) (5th Nasr)
Six artillery battalions
Fath Command: (under command of Sardar Gholam-Ali Rashid and Amir Massoud Monfared Niyaki)
IRGC:
14th "Imam Hossein" Brigade (1st Fath)
8th "Najaf Ashraf" Brigade (3rd Fath)
25th "Karbala" Brigade (4th Fath)
Two battalions from 30th Armoured Brigade
Army:
92nd Armoured Division
1st Brigade (1st Fath)
2nd Brigade (2nd Fath)
3rd Brigade (3rd Fath)
37th Armoured Brigade (4th Fath)
55th Airborne Brigade (4th Fath)
151st Battalion (4th Fath)
Eight artillery battalions
Qods Command: (under command of Sardar Ahmad Gholampoor and Amir Siroos Lotfi)
IRGC:
31st "Ashura" Brigade (1st Qods)
21st "Imam Reza" Brigade (2nd Qods)
37th "Noor" Brigade (3rd Qods)
41st "Sarallah" Brigade (4th Qods)
43rd "Beit-ol-Moqaddas" Brigade (5th Qods)
One battalion from 30th Armoured Brigade
Army:
16th Armoured Division of Qazvin
1st Brigade (1st Qods)
2nd Brigade (2nd Qods)
3rd Brigade (3rd Qods)
58th "Zolfaqar" Brigade (4th Qods)
One company from 254th Tank Battalion (5th Qods)
Six artillery batalions
Fajr Command:
Army:
77th Infantry Division of Khorasan
3rd Brigade
IRGC:
17th "Ali ibn Abi Taleb" Brigade
33rd "Al-Mahdi" Brigade
35th "Imam Sajjad" Brigade
Combat engineer units of the Army include:
Combat Engineer Battalion of 21st Division
Combat Engineer Battalion of 92nd Division
Combat Engineer Battalion of 16th Division
411th Combat Engineer Section of Boroujerd
411th Pontoon Bridge Battalion
414th Combat Engineer Battalion
"Zafar" Company
Other units include:
Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force
Islamic Republic of Iran Army Aviation:
96 helicopters were involved, including (sources differ on numbers): 24-26 Bell AH-1J International, 22-32 Bell 214, 6-16 Boeing CH-47 Chinook, 16-32 Bell 206 helicopters
Islamic Republic of Iran Navy's Takavar units
Iraq
Iraqi units involved in the operation were as follows:
3rd Armoured Division
6th Armoured Brigade
12th Armoured Brigade
53th Armoured Brigade
8th Mechanized Brigade
6th Armoured Division
16th Armoured Brigade
30th Armoured Brigade
25th Mechanized Brigade
7th Armoured Division
9th Armoured Division
35th Armoured Brigade
43th Armoured Brigade
14th Mechanized Brigade
12th Armoured Division
37th Armoured Brigade
46th Mechanized Brigade
10th Armoured Division
17th Armoured Brigade
24th Mechanized Brigade
5th Mechanized Division
26th Armoured Brigade
55th Armoured Brigade
15th Mechanized Brigade
20th Mechanized Brigade
11th Infantry Division
44th Infantry Brigade
48th Infantry Brigade
49th Infantry Brigade
22nd Infantry Brigade
45th Infantry Brigade
113th Infantry Brigade
7th Infantry Division (I Corps)
19th Infantry Brigade
39th Infantry Brigade
15th Infantry Division
10th Independent Armoured Brigade
Republican Guards:
31st, 32nd, 33rd, 416th, 417th, 601st, 602nd, 603rd, 119th brigades
10th Armoured Brigade
109, 419, 416, 90, 417, 601, 602, 605, 606, 409, 238, & 501st Independent Infantry Brigades
9th, 10th, 20th, 113th Border Guard Brigades
33rd Special Forces Brigade
Thirty commando companies
Popular Army:
10 units, 450 fighters each
"Saif Saad" Independent Tank Battalion
"Hattin", "Salah al-Din" & "Hanin" reconnaissance battalions
Thirty artillery battalions
Iraqi Air Force
Iraqi Army Air Corps
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