Iranian Victory at Battle of the Bridge

Iranian Victory at Battle of the Bridge ...
1host2u.com 20/10/634 History

Keywords:#1host2u.ir, #Arab, #Arabic, #Bahman, #Bahman_Jadhuyih, #Battle_of_al-Qadisiyyah, #Battle_of_the_Bridge, #Ctesiphon, #Euphrates, #Iranian, #Khorasan, #Kufa, #Medina, #Mesopotamia, #Muslim, #Persia, #Persian, #Rostam, #Sasanian, #Walid, #Yazdegerd

The Battle of the Bridge was fought between Arab Muslims led by Abu Ubaid Thaqfi, and the Persian Sasanian Empire forces led by Bahman Jaduya. It is traditionally dated to the year 634, and was the only major Persian victory over the invading Muslim armies.
Context
The Muslim forces had already taken Hira and assumed control of the surrounding Arab-inhabited areas of Mesopotamia, on the banks of the Euphrates. The fall of Hira shocked the Persians, as the "youthful Yazdgard, began to take the business of the Arabs more seriously." Yazdgard sent forces to the Arab border areas, and looked to be gaining the upper hand, as Al-Muthanna had to call for reinforcements from Medina.
The new Caliph, Umar, sent Abu Ubaid to Mesopotamia to take command from Al-Muthanna. He encountered the main Persian force under Bahman Jaduya, near what is the present site of Kufa. The two forces faced each other on opposing banks of the Euphrates. As it was crossed by a bridge, the battle came to known as the Battle of the Bridge.
Battle
Abu Ubaid took the initiative, and crossed the river. According to accounts, the sight of the elephants in the Persian army frightened the Arabs' horses. A white elephant apparently tore Abu Ubaid from his horse with its trunk, and trampled him under foot. At this, and the inability of the Arabs troops to push back the Persians who had formed a rigid line close to the bridge, the Arabs panicked and fled.
According to tradition, Al-Muthanna refused to flee, and remained to fight, losing 4,000 men - although any accurate estimates of the figures involved in this and other contemporaneous battles are not known. But sources agree that for whatever reason, Bahman Jaduya did not pursue the fleeing Arab army.
Bahman Jādhūyah/Jādūyah (also Jādhōē/Jādōē; New Persian: بهمن جادویه), or Bahman Jādhawayh (Arabic: بهمن جاذويه‎‎) (in Middle Persian: Vahūman Ĵādaggōw) was an Iranian general of the Sasanians. He had a reputation for being anti-Arab. He is mostly known to have led the Sasanians to victory against the Arabs at the Battle of the Bridge. The Arab forces referred to Bahman as Dhul Hājib, (ذو الحاجب, "owner of bushy eyebrows"). He is often confused with Mardanshah, another Sasanian general.
Biography
Nothing is known of his early life, but Bahman Jadhuyih is recorded as an old man by 634. Bahman may have been the son of the Sasanian commander Hormozd Jadhuyih. Bahman is first mentioned in 633, as one the spokesmen for the Sasanians and a member of the Parsig faction led by Piruz Khosrow. In 633, the Sasanian monarch ordered a Sasanian commander named Andarzaghar who was in charge of protecting the borders of Khorasan to protect the western frontiers from the Arabs who were plundering Persia.
In 633, Andarzaghar, along with Bahman Jadhuyih, made a counter-attack against the army of Khalid ibn al-Walid at Walaja, but were defeated. After the defeat, Bahman fled to Ctesiphon, where he found Yazdegerd sick. However, Bahman was shortly ordered by the latter to make a counter-attack against the Arabs. Bahman, however, disobeyed the child king and sent Jaban to fight the Arabs instead. Jaban, who was sent alone on the western front to confront the Arabs, was defeated at the battle of Ullais.
When the Arabs under Abu Ubaid were making an expedition in the Sawad in 634, Rostam Farrokhzād sent Bahman Jadhuyih and Jalinus against him with a force from the powerful Wuzurgan class, who had units such as war elephants and the Zhayedan. Rostam is known to have to have told Bahman that: "if Jalinus returns to the like of his defeat, then cut off his head."
During the battle the army of Bahman had an advantage: the elephants in his army frightened the Arabs horses, and which later resulted in the death of Abu Ubaid. The bridge was then broken by an Arab, and around 4,000 Arabs died by drowning and many others were killed by the Bahman's forces. Al-Muthanna managed to flee from the bridge and rally 3,000 Arab survivors, however, some of them fled back to Medina. Bahman did not pursue the fleeing Arab army. In 636 during the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah Bahman was killed by Qa’qa ibn Amr in revenge for the death of Abu Ubaid and the others killed at the Battle of the Bridge.
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