Mohammad Khiabani Uprising in Azarbaijan

Mohammad Khiabani Uprising in Azarbaijan ...
parseed.ir 06/04/1920 History

Keywords:#Abdolhamid, #Azadistan, #Azarbaijan, #British, #Constitutional_Revolution, #Democrat_Party, #Haji, #Iran, #Iranian, #Mohammad_Khiabani, #Ottomans, #Parseed, #Parseed.ir, #Persia, #Persian, #Revolution, #Russian, #September, #Shia, #Tabriz, #Tehran, #United_Kingdom, #World_War_I

Shaikh Mohammad Khiābāni (Persian: شیخ محمد خیابانی‎, 1880–1920), sometimes spelled Khiyabani, also known as Shaikh Mohammad Khiābāni Tabrizi was an Iranian Shia cleric, political leader, and representative to the parliament.
He was born in Khameneh, near Tabriz to Haji Abdolhamid (his father) from Khameneh, a merchant. He became active during the Persian Constitutional Revolution and was a prominent dissident against foreign colonialism, which subsequently led to him being sent into exile by the Ottomans in 1918.
After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Khiabani re-established the Democrat Party of Tabriz after being banned for five years, and published the Tajaddod newspaper, the official organ of the party, edited by his supporter Taqi Rafat. Later, in a protest to the 1919 Treaty between Persia and the United Kingdom, which exclusively transferred the rights of deciding about all military, financial, and customs affairs of Persia to the British, he revolted and took Tabriz and surrounding areas, calling it Azadistan ("land of liberty"); he was not, however, a separatist. After the fall of Vosough od-Dowleh, the then prime minister, the new prime minister sent Mehdi Qoli Hedayat to Tabriz, giving him full authority, and he crushed and killed Khiabani in the late summer of 1920 (Hedayat claimed that Khiabani had committed suicide).
Azadistan, or Azadestan (Persian: آزادیستان‎, romanized: Āzādestān, lit. 'The Land of Freedom'), was a short-lived state in the Iranian provinces of Azarbaijan that lasted from the early 1920 until September 1920. It was established by Mohammad Khiabani, an Iranian patriot, who was a representative to the parliament, and a prominent dissident against foreign colonialism.
Shortly after the Russian Revolution of 1917, Khiabani re-established the Democrat Party of Tabriz after being banned for five years, and published the Tajaddod newspaper, the official organ of the party.
After the end of World War I, in a protest to the 1919 Treaty between Persia and the United Kingdom, which exclusively transferred the rights of deciding about all military, financial, and customs affairs of Persia to the British, Khiabani disputed control of Tabriz with the central government of Vosough od-Dowleh in Tehran and, in 1920, Khiabani proclaimed Azarbaijan to be Azadistan, to provide a model of freedom and democratic governance for the rest of Iran. He considered himself not a separatist.
Khiabani's movement was suppressed militarily in September 1920. After the fall of Vosough od-Dowleh, the then prime minister, the new prime minister sent Mehdi Qoli Hedayat to Tabriz, giving him full authority, and he crushed and killed Khiabani in the late summer of 1920 and Azadistan was dissolved.
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