Persian Relic Discovered in 1957: Hassanlu Golden Bowl

Persian Relic Discovered in 1957: Hassanlu Golden Bowl...
english.irib.ir 26/11/2013 History

Keywords:#1934, #Akkadian, #Armenia, #English.irib.ir, #Hassanlu, #Hassanlu_Golden_Bowl, #Hittite, #Hurrian, #Iran, #Iran_Daily, #Iranian, #Iran’s_National_Museum, #Kummarbi, #Mazandaran, #Medes, #Naqadeh, #Neo-Hittite, #Persian, #Robert_Dison, #Russian, #Tehran



Hassanlu Golden Bowl is a valuable relic discovered in 1957, during Robert Dison’s excavation in the citadel mound at Hassanlu, near Naqadeh, northwest of Iran.


The cup, which dates back to 3,200 years, has influenced the civilizational artworks of Medes, Cais-soas reported.
It was discovered in the southeastern corner of the building where, at the end of the 9th century BCE, it was buried under the collapsed mud brick walls of the second story along with the bodies of three men.
One of these men was carrying the bowl. Although badly crushed, it could be determined that the man had fallen on his right shoulder, with his head facing the north wall.
His lower right arm lay upright against the wall face, his hand bent at the wrist. This arm, from wrist to shoulder, was protected by a gauntlet made perhaps of leather (represented by a thin, half-centimeter thick film of powdery yellow and plum-red material).
It was backed by six or seven rows of round, flat-topped bronze buttons attached by loops at the back. Two larger flanged buttons formed attachments at either end.
The left arm was unadorned, the upper part lying in front of and parallel to his chest, with the lower part lying against the wall. Between his hands, lying at 45-degree angle, was the flattened gold bowl.

Specifications

The bowl contained three other valued artifacts: a mottled red and white uncut stone cylinder with gold caps, a shattered figurine (perhaps a bird) of laminated ivory and a sword-hilt with a U-shaped bronze guard set over the shoulder of a broken iron blade with round tang.
The grip was composed of three red sandstone and three white stone discs.
The pommel was missing. This object is of considerable interest as it matches one found in the former Russian Armenia at Mouci-yeri, dating to between 1200 and 900 BCE.
The bowl is decorated by repousse‚ work and chasing. It is about 20 cm in height, with a base about 15 cm and a rim of about 18 cm in diameter, indicating a slight outward flare for the sides.
A slight bulge around the base duplicates the shape of the gold cup found in Mazandaran province in 1934. The sides of both vessels have guilloche borders, double at the top and single at the base, with chased patterns on their bottoms.
The bottom of Hassanlu bowl is decorated with a checkerboard pattern, flanked on each side by a ram walking to the right, giving a rotary motion to the design.
The decoration on the sides of the Hassanlu bowl is organized into an upper and a lower register, linked at only one point by a flow of water issuing from the mouth of a bull in the top register and falling to the register below.
The upper register presents a single composition consisting of a young, unshaven, male individual carrying a beaker, followed by two others, each bringing a sacrificial lamb.
All three wear ankle-length draped garments like those of the three deities riding in chariots, whom they approach.
The first deity, identified as a storm, weather, or atmospheric deity, drives a chariot drawn by a pair of bulls (the second bull indicated by the doubling of the horns).
The deity is identified by a pair of rays, wings or flames issuing from his shoulders. He wears a simple headband ending in a triangular tab at the back.
The second deity is a sun deity, as shown by his solar-disc headdress, while the third is a moon or local deity, identified by a horned headdress. These two deities ride chariots with six-spooked wheels drawn by mules.
The weather deity’s type of headband is worn also by three male figures in the lower register: One offers a libation in a tall beaker to an altar and the other two are combatants, holding their arms outstretched at a 45-degree angle in opposition to each other.
The position of this combat scene at the base of the falling water singles it out as the focal point for the lower register.
The lower register, in contrast to the upper, is composed of a series of episodes that begin to the right of the combat scene with a deity standing on the backs of two rams (indicated by a doubling of the face and horns).
All of the figures in the episodes, including the deity, look to the right in the direction of the combat scene which comes at the end of the sequence.
The left-hand figure in the combat scene wears a woven kilt with embroidered border and tassels, and some kind of “boxing mittens”. His opponent stands, or sits, in a throne chair with high back covered with mountain scales.
The throne appears to rest on the back of a recumbent lion. This figure also apparently wears only a kilt, represented by the top of its belt-line. From the back of this mountain throne, issues a scaled monster with three fox-like heads, facing left toward the combat scene.
These elements, which recall mythological episodes, reflect older Akkadian, Hurrian, Hittite, Neo-Hittite, and perhaps Iranian traditions.
It is evident that the style and content of the Hassanlu bowl developed from a mixture of such traditions, perhaps organized around some specific story such as the myth of the Hurrian deity Kummarbi.
Given the very complex ethnic composition of northwestern Iran and the absence of written evidence, attributions of date of origin, place of manufacture or ethnic association are, at present, speculative.
Many history lovers keen on seeing this historical relic can visit Iran’s National Museum in Tehran province.

Source: Iran Daily

---Hassanlu Golden Bowl is a valuable relic discovered in 1957, during Robert Dison’s excavation in the citadel mound at Hassanlu, near Naqadeh, northwes …---
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