Fat′h Ali ShahQajar (5 September 1772 – 23 October 1834) was the second Qajar Emperor/Shah of Persia. He reigned from 17 June 1797 until his death.
Fat′h Ali Shah was born in Damghan on 5 September 1772. He was the son of Hossein Qoli Khan Qajar, brother of Agha Mohammad Khan. He was governor of Fars when his uncle was assassinated in 1797. Fath Ali Shah's real name was "Bābā Khān" but he was crowned as Fath Ali Shah. He became suspicious of his chancellor Hajji Ebrahim Khan Kalantar and ordered his execution. Hajji Ebrahim Khan had been chancellor to Zand and Qajar rulers for some fifteen years.
Much of his reign was marked by the resurgence of Persian arts and painting, as well as a deeply elaborate court culture with extremely rigid etiquette. In particular during his reign, portraiture and large-scale oil painting reached a height previously unknown under any other Islamic dynasty, largely due to his personal patronage.
Fat′h Ali also ordered the creation of much royal regalia, including coronations chairs; the "Takht-e Khurshīd" (Persian: تخت خورشید) or Sun Throne; the "Takht-e Nāderi" (Persian: تخت نادری) or Naderi Throne, which was also used by later kings; and the "Tāj-e Kiyāni" (Persian: تاج كيانى) or Kiani Crown, a modification of the crown of the same name created by his uncle Agha Mohammad Khan. The latter, like most of his regalia, was studded with a large number of pearls and gems.
In 1797, Fat′h Ali was given a complete set of the Britannica's 3rd edition, which he read completely; after this feat, he extended his royal title to include "Most Formidable Lord and Master of the Encyclopædia Britannica." ------ ...