Citadel or fortified part of Athens, built on high ground in which the Parthenon was built. Acropolis is a flat-topped rock that rises 150 m above sea level, with a surface area of about 3 hectares. It was also known as Cecropia, after the legendary serpent-man, Cecrops, the first Athenian king.The Persians sacked the city in 480 BC. The building was burnt and looted. After the Persian crisis had subsided, the Athenians incorporated many of the unfinished temple's architectural members to the newly built northern curtain wall of the Acropolis. The devastated site was cleared from debris. Statuary, cult objects, religious offerings and unsalvageable architectural members were buried ceremoniously in several deeply dug pits on the hill, serving conveniently as a fill for the artificial plateau created around the classic Parthenon. This "Persian debris" is the richest archaeological deposit excavated on the Acropolis. (Wikipedia) - Acropolis For the most famous example of an acropolis, see Acropolis of Athens. For the Swedish football team, see Akropolis IF. For other uses, see Acropolis (disambiguation).
View of the Acropolis of Pergamon in the background, as seen from Via Tecta at the entrance to the Asclepeion.Acropolis of Assos
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An acropolis (Greek: ἀκρόπολις; from akros or akron, "highest", "topmost", "outermost" and polis, "city"; plural in English: acropoles, acropoleis or acropolises) is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense. In many parts of the world, acropoleis became the nuclei of large cities of classical antiquity, such as ancient Rome, which in more recent times grew up on the surrounding lower ground, such as modern Rome.
The word acropolis literally means in Greek "upper city," and though associated primarily with the Greek cities Athens, Argos, Thebes, and Corinth (with its Acrocorinth), may be applied generically to all such citadels, including Rome, Jerusalem, Celtic Bratislava, many in Asia Minor, or even Castle Rock in Edinburgh. An example in Ireland is the Rock of Cashel. Acropolis is also the term used by archaeologists and historians to the urban Castro culture settlements located in Northwestern Iberian hilltops.
The most famous example is the Acropolis of Athens, which, by reason of its historical associations and the several famous buildings erected upon it (most notably the Parthenon), is known without qualification as the Acropolis. Although originating in the mainland of Greece, use of the acropolis model quickly spread to Greek colonies such as the Dorian Lato on Crete during the Archaic Period.
Because of its classical Hellenistic style, the ruins of Mission San Juan Capistrano''s Great Stone Church in California, United States has been called the "American Acropolis".
Other parts of the world developed other names for the high citadel or alcázar, which often reinforced a naturally strong website. In Central Italy, many small rural communes still cluster at the base of a fortified habitation known as La Rocca of the commune.
The term acropolis is also used to describe the central complex of overlapping structures, such as plazas and pyramids, in many Maya cities, including Tikal and Copán. GalleryThe Acropolis of Athens as seen from Mount Lycabettus (northeast). The wooded Hill of the Nymphs is half-visible on its right, and Philopappos Hill on the left, immediately behind. Philopappos Monument stands where, in the distant background, the coast of Peloponnese meet the waters of the Saronic Gulf.