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Updated:Saturday 11th October 2014

Ariobarzanes Definition

Ariobarzanes: Persian nobleman, satrap of Persis, defended the Persian gate against invading Macedonian Alexander.Ariobarzanes is best known as the satrap of Persis who was almost able to defeat the Macedonian conqueror Alexander the Great at the Persian gate, but before his day of fame, he had already earned his spurs. During the battle of Gaugamela on Oct, 1 331 B.C., he had commanded a regiment of soldiers recruited along the Persian Gulf. Ariobarzanes must have been a close relative or personal friend of Dariush 3.The Persians fought bravely at Issus and Gaugamela, but were unable to prevent Macedonian victories, and Alexander proceeded to Babylon and Susa. A royal road connected the last-mentioned city with the capitals of Persis, Persepolis and Pasargadae. Meanwhile, Dariush was building a new army at Ecbatana.It was obvious that Alexander wanted to reach the treasures of Persepolis before Dariush could defend them. Ariobarzanes had to prevent the Macedonian attack on Persis, and had two advantages: in the first place, he commanded people who were defending their homes and were very motivated; in the second place, he knew the terrain. There were only a few possible roads through the Zagros Mountains, which were in January 330, covered with snow and ice. And Ariobarzanes knew how to exploit this.For Ariobarzanes, the young Macedonian king was the best of all possible enemies. He first massacred the mountain tribe of the Uxians, and believed that after this deed, everyone would flee. Indeed, at the Susian Gate, west of Yasuj, no one appeared to block the road. Believing that he would not encounter any problems in the Persian Gate either, Alexander forgot to send scouts into the pass and walked into Ariobarzanes' trap with his eyes wide open.The satrap had occupied a position near the little village that is now known as Cheshmeh Chenar. When one approaches this place from the west, the valley, called Tang-e Meyran, is initially very wide, so the Macedonians marched at some speed. But From the northern slope, the Persians mercilessly rained down boulders and stones on the Macedonians, who were smashed away not individually, but by entire platoons. From the southern slope, Persian archers and catapults launched their projectiles. The Macedonians panicked, tried to return, but were unable to do so, because their rear guard was still advancing. It must have taken some time before Alexander's men were in full retreat. The casualties were left behind.A local shepherd offered his services to the invaders, and told them how to turn the Persian Gate. This sounds like Herodotus' story of Ephialtes, who showed the Persian king Xerxes a road to circumvent Thermopylae in 480. Whatsoever, Alexander discovered an accessible mountain path, and at dawn, Ariobarzanes was under attack from the north by Philotas, from the east by Alexander, and from the west by Craterus. Ariobarzanes, and his surviving companions were trapped, but rather than surrender, they charged straight into the Macedonian lines.Ariobarzanes was killed in the last charge.Alexander reached the beautiful palace on one of the last days of January 330. He appointed a man named Phras (Wikipedia) - Ariobarzanes

Ariobarzanes may refer to:

ContentsPersian satraps
  • Ariobarzanes of Phrygia (fl. 407 BC – 362 BC), Persian satrap of Phrygia who led an unsuccessful revolt against the King Artaxerxes II
  • Ariobarzanes, Satrap of Persis (fl. 368 BC – 330 BC), Persian satrap of Persis who fought against Alexander the Great at the Battle of the Persian Gate as Alexander''s forces were making their way to Persepolis in 330 BC
Kings or satraps of the Mithridatic dynasty that ruled Pontus
  • Ariobarzanes of Phrygia, the first known member of the family
  • Ariobarzanes II of Cius (died 337 BC), son of Mithridates, famous for his rebellion against Artaxerxes II Memnon in 362 BC
  • Ariobarzanes of Pontus (died 250 BC), son of Mithridates I Ctistes and second king of Pontus
Kings of Cappadocia
  • Ariobarzanes I of Cappadocia, king of Cappadocia from 93 BC to ca. 63 or 62 BC
  • Ariobarzanes II of Cappadocia, son and successor of Ariobarzanes I, murdered some time before 51 BC
  • Ariobarzanes III of Cappadocia, son and successor of Ariobarzanes II, who ruled from ca. 51 BC until his execution in 42 BC
Kings and Monarchs of Media Atropatene and Armenia
  • Ariobarzanes I of Media Atropatene, ruled from 65 BC to 56 BC, father and predecessor of Artavasdes I of Media Atropatene
  • Ariobarzanes II of Atropatene, grandson of Ariobarzanes I, king of Media Atropatene from 20 BC to 8 BC, and king of Armenia from 2 BC to AD 4
  • Gaius Julius Ariobarzanes I (flourished second half of 1st century BC & first half of 1st century), son of Ariobarzanes II and grandson of Artavasdes I
  • Gaius Julius Ariobarzanes II, possible son of Gaius Julius Ariobarzanes I and possible grandson of Ariobarzanes II of Atropatene
This disambiguation page lists articles about people with the same name. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.

Tags:Alexander the Great, Ario Borzin, Ariobarzanes, Armenia, Artaxerxes, Artaxerxes II, Atropatene, Babylon, Cappadocia, Cheshmeh Chenar, Dariush, Dariush 3, Ecbatana, Gaugamela, Herodotus, Issus, Macedonian Alexander, Media, Memnon, Mithridates, Pasargadae, Persepolis, Persian, Persian Gulf, Persis, Phrygia, Satrap, Susa, Thermopylae, Wikipedia, Xerxes, Yasuj, Zagros, Zagros Mountains

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