(Wikipedia) - Bashkortostan This article is about a federal subject of Russia. For the newspaper, see Bashkortostan (newspaper).
Republic of Bashkortostan Республика Башкортостан (Russian) Башҡортостан Республикаһы (Bashkir)
— Republic —
| Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of Bashkortostan |
| Coordinates: 54°28′N 56°16′E / 54.467°N 56.267°E / 54.467; 56.267Coordinates: 54°28′N 56°16′E / 54.467°N 56.267°E / 54.467; 56.267 |
| Russia |
|March 23, 1919 |
Government (as of August 2010)
|Rustem Khamitov |
|State Assembly—Kurultai |
|Area (as of the 2002 Census) |
|143,600 km2 (55,400 sq mi) |
|Population (2010 Census) |
|28.36 /km2 (73.5 /sq mi) |
|YEKT (UTC+06:00) |
|02, 102 |
|Russian; Bashkir |
|Official website |
The Republic of Bashkortostan (Russian: Респу́блика Башкортоста́н, tr. Respublika Bashkortostan; IPA: ; Bashkir: Башҡортостан Республикаһы, Başqortostan Respublikahı), also known as Bashkiria (Russian: Башки́рия, tr. Bashkiriya; IPA: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). It is located between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains. Its capital is the city of Ufa. With the population of 4,072,292 as of the 2010 Census, Bashkortostan is the most populous of the republics in Russia. Contents
- 1 Terminology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 3.1 Rivers
- 3.2 Lakes
- 3.3 Mountains
- 3.4 Natural resources
- 3.5 Climate
- 4 Administrative divisions
- 5 Politics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 7.1 Population development
- 7.2 Vital statistics
- 7.3 Ethnic groups
- 7.4 Religion
- 7.5 Languages
- 8 Sport
- 9 Education
- 10 Culture
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Sources
- 14 External links
"Bashkortostan" derives from the name of the Bashkir ethnic group, also known as Bashkorts. The root of the name is a Turkic ("baş" in Turkish means "head, chief, principal"), and the Persian suffix -stan is common to many Eurasian country-names. They speak the Bashkir language, which belongs to the Kypchak branch of the Turkic languages. History Main article: History of Bashkortostan
| ||This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2012) |
The first settlements in the territory of modern Bashkortostan date from the early Paleolithic period, but the Bronze Age spurred an upsurge in the population of this territory. When people of the Abashevo culture started settling here they possessed high skills in manufacturing bronze tools, weapons, and decorations. They were the first to establish permanent settlements in the Southern Urals.
Bashkortostan takes its name from its native people - the Bashkirs. The Russian (Slavonic) name of the country — Bashkiriya — formed at the end of the 16th century. Originally it appeared in the forms Bashkir’, Bashkirda and Bashkir horde. The first written references to Bashkir tribes appear in compositions of Herodotus (fifth century BCE). The ethnonym Bashkirs first became known in the 9th century. In the 10th century, Al-Balkhi wrote about Bashkirs as a people, divided into two groups, one of which inhabited the Southern Urals, while the other lived near the Danube river, close to the boundaries of Byzantium. His contemporary Ibn-Ruste described the Bashkirs as "an independent people, occupying territories on both sides of the Ural mountain ridge between Volga, Kama, Tobol and upstream of Yaik river".
After the early-feudal Mongolian state had broken down in the 14th century, the territory of modern Bashkortostan became divided between the Kazan and Siberia Khanates and the Nogai Horde. The tribes that lived there were headed by bi (tribal heads). After Kazan fell to Ivan the Terrible in 1554–1555, representatives of western and northwestern Bashkir tribes approached the Tsar with a request to voluntarily join Muscovy.
Starting from the second half of the 16th century, Bashkiria''s territory began taking shape as a part of the Russian state. In 1798 the Spiritual Assembly of Russian Muslims was established— an indication that the tsarist Government recognized the rights of Bashkirs, Tatars, and other Muslim nations to profess Islam and perform religious rituals. Ufa Governorate (guberniya), with a center in Ufa, was formed in 1865— another step towards territorial identification.
After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) was established, first as Little Bashkortostan; eventually all of Ufa Governorate became incorporated into the newly established republic. During the Soviet period, Bashkiria was granted broad autonomous rights— the first among other Russian regions. The administrative structure of the Bashkir ASSR was based on principles similar to those of other autonomous republics of Russia.
The extraction of crude oil in Bashkiria began in 1932. At the end of 1943 large crude oil deposits were discovered. During the Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945, Bashkiria became one of the major regions of the Soviet Union to accommodate plants and factories evacuated from Western Russia, as well as great masses of people, while also providing the country with weaponry, fuel, and foodstuffs. After the war, a number of industries developed further in Bashkiria ,such as mining, machine-building and (especially) oil-refining. Bashkiria''s industry became a solid base for the further economic growth of all European outlying territories of Russia.
On October 11, 1990 the Supreme Soviet of the Republic adopted the Declaration on state sovereignty of the Bashkir ASSR. On February 25, 1992 the Bashkir ASSR was renamed the Republic of Bashkortostan.
On March 31, 1992 a Federative Compact "On separation of authorities and powers among federal organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed. On August 3, 1994 a Compact "On separation of authorities and mutual delegating of powers among the organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed. Geography
Bashkortostan contains part of the southern Urals and the adjacent plains.
- Area: 143,600 square kilometers (55,400 sq mi) (according to the 2002 Russian census) or 142,900 square kilometers (55,200 sq mi) (according to Bashkortostanstat)
- Borders: Bashkortostan borders with Perm Krai (N), Sverdlovsk Oblast (NE), Chelyabinsk Oblast (NE/E/SE), Orenburg Oblast (SE/S/SW), the Republic of Tatarstan (W), and the Udmurt Republic (NW)
- Highest point: Mount Yamantau (1,638 m)
- Maximum North-South distance: 550 km
- Maximum East-West distance: over 430 km
RiversThe Ufa River
There are over 13,000 rivers in the republic. Many rivers are part of the deepwater transportation system of European Russia; they provide access to ports of the Baltic and Black seas.
Major rivers include:
- Belaya (Aghidhel) River (1,430 km)
- Ufa (Qaraidel) River (918 km)
- Sakmara River (760 km)
- Ik (Iq) River (571 km)
- Dyoma River (556 km)
- Ay River (549 km)
- Yuruzan River (404 km)
- Bystry Tanyp River (345 km)
- Sim River (239 km)
- Nugush River (235 km)
- Tanalyk River (225 km)
- Zilim River (215 km)
- Syun River (209 km)
There are 2,700 lakes and reservoirs in the republic. Major lakes and reservoirs include:
- Asylykül Lake (23.5 km²)
- Qandrykül Lake (15.6 km²)
- Urgun Lake (12.0 km²)
- Pavlovskoye Reservoir (120.0 km²)
- Nugushkoye Reservoir (25.2 km²)
The republic contains part of the southern Urals, which stretch from the northern to the southern border. The highest mountains include:
- Mount Yamantau (1,638 m)
- Mount Bolshoy Iremel (1,582 m)
- Mount Maly Iremel (1,449 m)
- Mount Arwyakryaz (1,068 m)
- Mount Zilmerdaq (909 m)
- Mount Alataw (845 m)
- Mount Yurmataw (842 m)
The Republic of Bashkortostan is one of the richest territories of Russia in mineral resources with deposits of some 3,000 mineral resources. Bashkortostan is rich in crude oil reserves, and was one of the principal centers of oil extraction in the Russian federation. Other major resources are natural gas, coal, ferrous metal ores, manganese, chromite, iron ores, non-ferrous metals ores (lead, tungsten), non-metallic ores (rock crystal, fluorite, iceland spar, sulfide pyrites, barite, silicates, silica, asbestos, talcum), deposits of precious and semi-precious stones and natural stones (malachite, jade, granite).
The republic has enough mineral resources to provide its power and fuel complex as well as petro-chemical, chemical, agro-industrial complex, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, glass-making and ceramic branches with raw materials.
Bashkortostan is one of the major raw materials bases for Russia non-ferrous metallurgy. The republic has good deposits of lignite with a high degree of bitumenosity. This lignite can be used for obtaining a variety of different chemical products like resins, surface-active substances, gummy fertilizers, and other stimulants for plants growth. Mining-chemical raw materials (rock salt, lime, phosphorites, barytes, etc.) are quite substantial, and are utilized in the republic economy.
Bashkortostan is also rich in woods. The total territory covered with forests is about 62,000 square kilometers (24,000 sq mi). More than one third of the republic territory is covered with woods. The following types of trees dominate: birch tree, conifers, lime, oak, and maple. The general stock of timber according to some evaluation is 717.9 million m³. Bashkortostan forests have special sanctuaries and national parks. They cover more than 10,000 square kilometers (3,900 sq mi).
Bashkortostan is also rich in springs and sources of mineral, medicinal, and drinking water. Climate
Administrative divisions Main article: Administrative divisions of BashkortostanMap of the Republic of Bashkortostan
- Average annual temperature: +0.3 °C (32.5 °F) (mountains) to +2.8 °C (37.0 °F) (plains)
- Average January temperature: −16 °C (3 °F)
- Average July temperature: +18 °C (64 °F)
Administrative and territorial division of the Republic of Bashkortostan is regulated by the Law #178-z of the Republic of Bashkortostan, passed by the State Assembly—Kurultai on April 20, 2005. The Law established the following classification:
- administrative units (административно-территориальные единицы):
- district (район)—an administrative unit established to govern selsoviets, rural settlement councils, and towns under that district''s jurisdiction. Districts cover territories with population of at least 20,000.
- selsoviet (сельсовет)—an administrative unit established to govern one or several rural localities with adjacent territories. Selsoviets cover territories with populations of at least 1,000.
- settlement council (поссовет)—an administrative unit established to govern an urban-type settlement with adjacent territories and/or selsoviets. Settlement councils have not been implemented in practice.
- inhabited localities (населённые пункты):
- urban localities (городские населённые пункты):
- city/town under republic''s jurisdiction (город республиканского значения);
- city district (городской район)—an administrative unit of cities under republic''s jurisdiction established to improve municipal government efficiency.
- city/town under a district''s jurisdiction (город районного значения)
- urban-type settlement (посёлок городского типа):
- work settlement (рабочий посёлок);
- suburban (dacha) settlement (дачный посёлок); not implemented in practice;
- resort settlement (курортный посёлок); not implemented in practice
- rural localities (сельские населённые пункты):
- aul (аул);
- khutor (хутор);
- selo (село);
- village (деревня)
- closed administrative-territorial formations (закрытое административно-территориальное образование)—territories under the federal government management with travel and residency restrictions; usually military objects.
All administrative units have administrative centers, defined as urban or rural localities housing the Government of the Republic of Bashkortostan, or municipal and local government organs.
Changes in the overall administrative and territorial structure of the Republic are authorized by the State Assembly—Kurultai. All changes must later be registered in the Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division on the federal level. PoliticsBuilding of the Government of the Republic
The head of the government of the Republic of Bashkortostan is the President, who is appointed by the President of Russia for a four-year term. According to the Constitution, the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan guarantees rights and liberties of the country''s people and citizens, protects economic and political interests of the Republic of Bashkortostan, and secures legitimacy, law and order within its territory.
Rustem Khamitov assumed office as president on July 19, 2010. His predecessor was Murtaza Rakhimov, elected on December 17, 1993. Before the elections, Rakhimov was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic— the highest post at that time. Rakhimov was re-elected in December 2003 in a poll condemned by the OSCE for exhibiting "elements of basic fraud."
The Republic''s parliament is the State Assembly—Kurultai, popularly elected every five years. The one-chamber State Assembly has 120 deputies.
The Republic''s Constitution was adopted on December 24, 1993. Article 1 of the Constitution stipulates that Bashkortostan is a sovereign state within Russia, it has state power beyond the limits of authority of the Russian Federation and the powers of the Russian Federation concerning the aspect of joint authority of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Bashkortostan. The Republic of Bashkortostan is a full-fledged subject of the Russian Federation on equal and agreed bases.
The relations of the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Russian Federation are at present based on the articles of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Federative Treaty (with amendments), and the Agreement on Separation of authorities and powers and mutual delegating of powers among the organs of state power of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
The judicial power of the republic is in the hands of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, district Courts, and justices of the peace.
In full accord with universally recognized principles of international law, articles of the European Charter of Local Self-Government and the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Bashkortostan ensures in its Constitution that local self-government is recognized and guaranteed within the republic''s territory.
The Republic of Bashkortostan resolves all issues of administrative-territorial structure on its own. The list of districts and towns, municipalities, as well as the order of establishing, amending and changing borders of municipalities and their names are stipulated by the Republic of Bashkortostan law "On administrative-territorial structure of the Republic of Bashkortostan and territory of municipalities".
The state has strong ties with its neighbor Tatarstan. EconomyAssy resort
Bashkortostan is one of the most developed regions of the Russian Federation in terms of its gross regional output, volume of industrial production, agricultural production, and investment in fixed assets.
The economy of Bashkortostan, being one of the largest industrial centers of Russia, is very diverse. Bashkortostan has a large agricultural sector. But the republic''s most important industry is chemical processing; Bashkortostan produces more oil than any other region of Russia, about 26 million tons annually, and provides 17% of the country''s gasoline and 15% of its diesel fuel. Other important products manufactured in Bashkortostan include alcohols, pesticides and plastics. The republic''s gross regional product in 2007 was 645 billion rubles (over €18 billion). More than half of Bashkortostan''s industry is based in Ufa, the republic''s capital.
Major economic indices DemographicsUfa cityVillage on the Inzer riverPopulation development
2002 2003 2004
Gross regional product
|214.8 ||279.7 ||n/a ||billion roubles || |
Industrial production volume
|161.7 ||192.1 ||354 ||billion roubles |
|1,408 ||1,471.5 ||1508.4 ||th.m.² |
|50.1 ||52.1 ||57.2 ||billion roubles |
Investments into fixed capital
|52.1 ||53.7 ||62.4 ||billion roubles |
Accumulated foreign investments
|71.7 ||97.6 ||157.1 ||million US$ |
Foreign trade turnover
|2646 ||3045.3 ||3840.6 ||million US$ |
|2303.4 ||2724.4 ||3525.9 ||million US$ |
|342.3 ||320.9 ||314.7 ||million US$ |
Wholesale trade turnover
|117.7 ||118.1 ||151.2 ||billion roubles |
Vital statisticsSource: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
|1897 ||1,991,000 |
|1913 ||2,811,000 |
|1926 ||2,547,000 |
|1939 ||3,158,000 |
|1959 ||3,340,000 |
|1970 ||3,818,000 |
|1979 ||3,849,000 |
|1989 ||3,950,482 |
|2002 ||4,104,336 |
|2010 ||4,072,292 |
Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate
|1970 ||3,817 ||63,498 ||28,004 ||35,494 ||16.6 ||7.3 ||9.3 |
|1975 ||3,825 ||63,096 ||31,802 ||31,294 ||16.5 ||8.3 ||8.2 |
|1980 ||3,850 ||67,743 ||36,067 ||31,676 ||17.6 ||9.4 ||8.2 |
|1985 ||3,868 ||76,839 ||39,101 ||37,738 ||19.9 ||10.1 ||9.8 |
|1990 ||3,952 ||63,899 ||38,157 ||25,742 ||16.2 ||9.7 ||6.5 |
|1991 ||3,975 ||58,240 ||39,638 ||18,602 ||14.7 ||10.0 ||4.7 |
|1992 ||4,005 ||53,271 ||43,539 ||9,732 ||13.3 ||10.9 ||2.4 |
|1993 ||4,030 ||46,772 ||50,738 ||-3,966 ||11.6 ||12.6 ||-1.0 |
|1994 ||4,050 ||47,296 ||54,267 ||-6,971 ||11.7 ||13.4 ||-1.7 |
|1995 ||4,074 ||45,622 ||51,734 ||-6,112 ||11.2 ||12.7 ||-1.5 |
|1996 ||4,091 ||45,228 ||49,600 ||-4,372 ||11.1 ||12.1 ||-1.1 |
|1997 ||4,103 ||43,776 ||49,354 ||-5,578 ||10.7 ||12.0 ||-1.4 |
|1998 ||4,113 ||44,465 ||48,470 ||-4,005 ||10.8 ||11.8 ||-1.0 |
|1999 ||4,119 ||41,368 ||52,608 ||-11,240 ||10.0 ||12.8 ||-2.7 |
|2000 ||4,117 ||41,642 ||53,550 ||-11,908 ||10.1 ||13.0 ||-2.9 |
|2001 ||4,112 ||42,793 ||55,001 ||-12,208 ||10.4 ||13.4 ||-3.0 |
|2002 ||4,104 ||45,481 ||57,836 ||-12,355 ||11.1 ||14.1 ||-3.0 |
|2003 ||4,095 ||45,583 ||58,237 ||-12,654 ||11.1 ||14.2 ||-3.1 |
|2004 ||4,084 ||45,733 ||57,726 ||-11,993 ||11.2 ||14.1 ||-2.9 |
|2005 ||4,074 ||44,094 ||57,787 ||-13,693 ||10.8 ||14.2 ||-3.4 |
|2006 ||4,064 ||45,055 ||55,319 ||-10,264 ||11.1 ||13.6 ||-2.5 |
|2007 ||4,060 ||51,453 ||55,144 ||-3,691 ||12.7 ||13.6 ||-0.9 |
|2008 ||4,059 ||54,493 ||55,568 ||-1,075 ||13.4 ||13.7 ||-0.3 |
|2009 ||4,062 ||55,587 ||53,227 ||2,360 ||13.7 ||13.1 ||0.6 ||1,74 |
|2010 ||4,067 ||57,093 ||54,457 ||2,636 ||14.0 ||13.4 ||0.6 ||1,77 |
|2011 ||4,072 ||55,806 ||54,432 ||1,374 ||13.7 ||13.4 ||0.3 ||1,74 |
|2012 ||4,064 ||58,997 ||53,380 ||5,617 ||14.5 ||13.1 ||1.4 ||1.86 |
|2013 ||4,065 ||59,384 ||53,489 ||5,895 ||14.6 ||13.2 ||1.4 ||1.89(e) |
Note: Total fertility rate 200-12 source. Ethnic groupsThe Bashkirs, photo by Mikhail Bukar, 1872
According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition was:
- Russian 36.1%
- Bashkir 29.5%
- Tatar 25.4%
- Chuvash 2.7%
- Mari 2.6%
- Ukrainian 1%
- Mordovian 0.5%
- Udmurt 0.5%
- Belarusians 0.3%
Ethnic group 1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census1
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
|Bashkirs ||625,845 ||23.5% ||671,188 ||21.2% ||737,744 ||22.1% ||892,248 ||23.4% ||935,880 ||24.3% ||863,808 ||21.9% ||1,221,302 ||29.8% ||1,172,287 ||29.5% |
|Russians ||1,064,707 ||39.9% ||1,281,347 ||40.6% ||1,418,147 ||42.4% ||1,546,304 ||40.5% ||1,547,893 ||40.3% ||1,548,291 ||39.3% ||1,490,715 ||36.3% ||1,432,906 ||36.1% |
|Tatars ||621,158 ||23.3% ||777,230 ||24.6% ||768,566 ||23.0% ||944,505 ||24.7% ||940,436 ||24.5% ||1,120,702 ||28.4% ||990,702 ||24.1% ||1,009,295 ||25.4% |
|Chuvash ||84,886 ||3.2% ||106,892 ||3.4% ||109,970 ||3.3% ||126,638 ||3.3% ||122,344 ||3.2% ||118,509 ||3.0% ||117,317 ||2.9% ||107,450 ||2.7% |
|Mari ||79,298 ||3.0% ||90,163 ||2.9% ||93,902 ||2.8% ||109,638 ||2.9% ||106,793 ||2.8% ||105,768 ||2.7% ||105,829 ||2.6% ||103,658 ||2.6% |
|Ukrainians ||76,710 ||2.9% ||99,289 ||3.1% ||83,594 ||2.5% ||76,005 ||2.0% ||75,571 ||2.0% ||74,990 ||1.9% ||55,249 ||1.3% ||39,875 ||1.0% |
|Others ||113,232 ||4.2% ||132,860 ||4.2% ||129,686 ||3.9% ||122,737 ||3.2% ||115,363 ||3.0% ||111,045 ||2.8% ||118,856 ||2.9% ||109,249 ||2.7% |
|1 97,572 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. |
Religion in Bashkortostan (2012) Muslim (38%) Russian Orthodox (25.2%) Unaffiliated Christian (3%) Rodnover, Čimarij Jüla and Tengrist (2%) Other Orthodox (1%) Spiritual but not religious (15%) Atheist (8%) Other or undeclared (7.8%)Lala Tulpan Mosque in Ufa
Islam is adhered to by a plurality of the nation''s population of Bashkir and Tatar descent. The Muslims of Bashkortostan follow Sunni Hanafi school of Islamic law.
Most ethnic Russians, Chuvash and Ukrainians are Orthodox Christians. Most Mari are Pagan. Non-religious people form a substantial part of any ethnic group in Bashkortostan. There are 13,000 Jews in the republic, with a historic synagogue in Ufa, and a new Jewish Community Center built in 2008.
According to a 2012 official survey 38% of the population of Bashkortostan is Muslim, 25.2% adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, and 2% adheres to Slavic Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism), the Mari Traditional Religion, or Tengrism. In addition, 15% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 8% is atheist, and 7.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Languages
Spoken languages: Russian (50%), Tatar (20%), Bashkir (30%). Sport
KHL team Salavat Yulaev Ufa plays in the city, as does Russian Major League team Toros Neftekamsk, and Minor Hockey League team Tolpar Ufa. Education
About sixty scientific organizations are active in the republic. Fundamental and applied scientific research is under way at twelve institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, twenty-nine institutes of different branches of industry, as well as numerous design bureaus and organizations, universities, and colleges.
The country''s system of popular education took shape over many centuries and reflects the Bashkir people''s folklore, national customs, and traditions. When Islam spread in Bashkiria in the 10th century, an educational system began to emerge gradually— primarily religious schools operated under the supervision of mosques (maktabeh and madrasah).
In addition, many institutions of higher education operate in the republic, including branches of 16 leading Russian universities and colleges. Specialists graduate with degrees in about 200 trades and professions.
Education is primarily in Russian and Bashkir. CultureBashkir State Academic Theater of Drama in Ufa
Bashkortostan is one of the largest cultural centers of Russia.
In addition, Bashkortostan is home to song and dance companies, a network of national theaters, museums, and libraries, and a number of annual folk festivals. The republic has seven Bashkir, four Russian, and two Tatar State Drama Theaters, a State Opera and Ballet Theater, a National Symphony Orchestra, "Bashkortostan" film studio, thirty philharmonic collectives, and the Bashkir State Folk Dance Ensemble.
The Bashkir School of Dance is well respected, with many students receiving international awards at competitions in Russia and other countries. World-renowned ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev, as a child, was encouraged to dance in Bashkir folk performances, and began his dancing career in Ufa.