(Wikipedia) - Casualty (person) (Redirected from Casualties) "Casualties" redirects here. For the band, see The Casualties. For other uses, see Casualty.Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy.
A casualty in military usage is a person in military service, not necessarily a combatant, who becomes unavailable for duty due to death, injury, illness, capture, desertion, etc.; or a civilian casualty.
In civilian usage the word "casualty" is properly used for a person who is killed, wounded or injured by some event, and is usually used to describe multiple deaths and injuries due to violent incidents or disasters. Casualties is sometimes loosely used or misunderstood to mean fatalities, but non-fatal injuries are also casualties. Contents
- 1 Military usage
- 1.1 NATO definitions
- 1.1.1 Casualty
- 1.1.2 Battle casualty
- 1.1.3 Non-battle casualty
- 1.2 Other definitions
- 1.2.1 Irrecoverable casualty
- 1.2.2 Medical casualty
- 1.2.3 Killed in action
- 1.2.4 Missing in action
- 1.2.5 Wounded in action
- 1.2.6 Prisoner of War
- 2 Civilian usage
- 3 Incidence
- 3.1 Military and civilian fatalities
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
In military usage, a casualty is a person in service killed in action, killed by disease, disabled by injuries, disabled by psychological trauma, captured, deserted, or missing, but not someone who sustains injuries which do not prevent them from fighting. Any casualty is no longer available for the immediate battle or campaign, the major consideration in combat, and the reason for lumping together all these different cases. The word has been used in a military context since at least 1513.
Civilian casualties are civilians killed or injured by military action, sometimes instead referred to by the euphemistic expression "collateral damage". NATO definitions
The military organisation NATO uses the following definitions: Casualty
In relation to personnel, any person who is lost to his organization by reason of being declared dead, wounded, diseased, detained, captured or missing. Battle casualty
Any casualty incurred as the direct result of hostile action, sustained in combat or relating thereto, or sustained going to or returning from a combat mission. Non-battle casualty
A person who is not a battle casualty, but who is lost to his organization by reason of disease or injury, including persons dying from disease or injury, or by reason of being missing where the absence does not appear to be voluntary or due to enemy action or to being interned. Other definitions
These definitions are popular among military historians. Irrecoverable casualty
In relation to personnel, any person killed in action, missing in action or who died of wounds or diseases before being evacuated to a medical installation. Medical casualty
Also known as sanitary casualty.
In relation to personnel, any person incapacitated by wounds sustained or diseases contracted in a combat zone, as well as any person admitted to a medical installation for treatment or recuperation for more than a day. There is a distinction between combat medical casualty and non-combat medical casualty. The former refers to a medical casualty that is a direct result of combat action; the latter refers to a medical casualty that is not a direct result of combat action Killed in action Main article: Killed in action
A casualty classification generally used to describe any person killed by means of the action of hostile forces. Missing in action Main article: Missing in action
A casualty classification generally used to describe any person reported missing during combat operations. They may have deserted, or may have been killed, wounded, or become a prisoner of war. Wounded in action Main article: Wounded in action
A casualty classification generally used to describe any person who has incurred an injury by means of action of hostile forces. Prisoner of War Main article: Prisoner of War
Any person who is held in custody by a hostile army during or immediately after an armed conflict. Civilian usage
While the word "casualty" has been used since 1844 in civilian life, it is a less important concept; the number of deaths on the one hand and serious injuries on the other are separately of major importance, and immediate availability for service is not. These numbers are usually cited together with or instead of total casualties. Incidence Military and civilian fatalities
According to WHO World health report 2004, deaths from intentional injuries (including war, violence, but also suicide) were estimated to be 2.8% of all deaths. In the same report, unintentional injury was estimated to be responsible for 6.2% of all deaths.