(Wikipedia) - Dezful For the administrative subdivision, see Dezful County.
| ||This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2013) |
| Rudband Shrine and the City along the Dez River |
|Nickname(s): دسفیل'', ''دژپل |
|Coordinates: 32°22′57″N 48°24′07″E / 32.38250°N 48.40194°E / 32.38250; 48.40194Coordinates: 32°22′57″N 48°24′07″E / 32.38250°N 48.40194°E / 32.38250; 48.40194 |
| Iran |
|150 m (490 ft) |
|IRST (UTC+3:30) |
• Summer (DST)
|IRDT (UTC+4:30) |
Dezful (Persian: دزفول, pronounced , also Romanized as Dezfūl and Dezfool; also known as Dīzfūl) is a city in and the capital of Dezful County, Khuzestan Province, Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 420,000 people in 105,000 families. In 2006, the city had 235,819 inhabitants.
Located in an area with a history that extends back to ancient civilization, the city houses a bridge that dates back to 300 BC. Contents
- 1 History
- 2 Archaeology
- 3 Geography
- 4 Climate
- 5 Economy
- 6 Agriculture
- 7 Dezful Vahdati Air Force Base and Airport
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Twin towns – sister cities
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Sources
- 13 External links
The name Dezful has been derived from the two words dezj (fortress)+ pol (bridge), which in combination could stand for ''the bridge to the fortress'' or ''fortified bridge''. The original name of the city was Dezjpol, but after the Islamic invasion of Persia, the city was renamed Dezful. The bridge was built during the reign of Shapur I who used Roman prisoners of war to build the bridge.Dezful Jame'' Mosque
The bridge protected the city from military interventions, hence its name. The old part of the city adjacent to the bridge is known as the Qaleh (castle). In the middle of the river, close to the bridge, you can see remains of several water mills built ca. 300 BC. Most of them were actually used up to the beginning of the 20th century. The last one was in use up to 1985.
The Academy of Gundishapur, a teaching hospital that was the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire, was founded near Dezful.
The people of Dezful, known as Dezfuli, Dezfoolians or Dezfulians, speak Dezfuli – a dialect distinct to Dezful – and Shushtar, which is sometimes considered the most archaic of Persian dialects. Archaeology
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North Khuzestan was home to some of the oldest civilizations in the world. 1.Chogamish Within a distance of 40 km. south east of Dezful a few clay hills have remained which are known as Choqamish. According to various studies and research work, it is believed that Choqamish Hill dates back to pre invention of calligraphy to about 34 centuries BC. The primitive culture of its inhabitants have been varified by means of their special method clay modeling and beautifully designed earthenware. This culture dates back to about 6000 years BC. The Choghamish hills have more than 8,000 years of treasures from different periods, and archaeologists have called on the city of dawn. Susa Zanbil temple symbolizes the people of knowledge in this area over 3000 years ago. Apadana Palace is a symbol of the greatness of the Iranian. Shushtar waterfalls are a symbol of Iranian engineering and technology. Dezful Old Bridge is a symbol of Persian authority. Cole Farah Izeh symbol of nobility of the people. These attractions put Dezful Area in the list of archaeologists'' main study areas. 2. Jondi Shapour Archaeological City The ancient city of Jondi Shapour lies at a distance of 10 km. from Dezful, at the vicinity of Shah Abad village. There is a strong possibility that Shahpour I was responsible for the construction of this city after his victory over Valerian. His descendant (7th generation) known as ''Shapour Zol Akhtaf'', developed and expanded the city to a large one. Its university in its own time was of great repute throughout the world, and even in the last decades has been considered to be a great scientific center. 3. Shah Abolghasem Tomb It is located to the right of the Dezful - Shooshtar Road. The structure consists of the entrance doorway, anteroom, nocturnal area of the mosque and the mausoleum. The main entrance is flagged with ancient columns constructed of thick bricks. The nocturnal area is rectangular and the entrance to this forms the corridor of the mausoleum, which has a curved ceiling in roman style, constructed of old sculptured stones. The top portion of the doorway was plaster worked in the Eilkhani period, and the sepulchre is of wood and devoid of any inscriptions. Some historians believe that this is the tomb of Yaqub Lais who passed away in the year 265 AH. near Jondi Shapour and the old mausoleum of Shah Abolqasem. Geography
City of Dezful is located in the province of Khuzestan, in south-west of Iran in +32º,25´ latitude and +48º,25´ eastward longitude according to Greenwich meantime (GMT). This city is on the eastern coast of Dezz river and South-west of Zagros chain of mountains.
Dezful sits close to the foothills of the Zagros Mountains on the main north-south highway from Tehran to Ahvaz, the provincial capital of Khuzestan. The main rail line from Tehran to the Persian Gulf is 15 km (9 mi) from Dezful, on the opposite side of the Dez Rive (12) Climate
Dezful has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh) with extremely hot summers and mild winters. Rainfall is higher than most of southern Iran, but is almost exclusively confined to the period from November to April, though on occasions it can exceed 250 millimetres (9.8 in) per month or 600 millimetres (24 in) per year.
Climate data for Dezful
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F)
|28.0 (82.4) ||29.0 (84.2) ||36.0 (96.8) ||40.5 (104.9) ||46.5 (115.7) ||50.0 (122) ||53.6 (128.5) ||52.0 (125.6) ||48.0 (118.4) ||43.0 (109.4) ||35.0 (95) ||29.0 (84.2) ||53.6 (128.5) |
Average high °C (°F)
|17.2 (63) ||19.6 (67.3) ||24.1 (75.4) ||30.0 (86) ||37.5 (99.5) ||43.7 (110.7) ||44.0 (111.2) ||44.9 (112.8) ||41.7 (107.1) ||34.8 (94.6) ||26.2 (79.2) ||19.3 (66.7) ||31.92 (89.46) |
Daily mean °C (°F)
|10.8 (51.4) ||13.2 (55.8) ||17.3 (63.1) ||22.8 (73) ||29.9 (85.8) ||35.1 (95.2) ||37.0 (98.6) ||35.8 (96.4) ||32.0 (89.6) ||25.6 (78.1) ||17.9 (64.2) ||12.5 (54.5) ||24.16 (75.48) |
Average low °C (°F)
|5.3 (41.5) ||6.8 (44.2) ||10.0 (50) ||14.7 (58.5) ||20.5 (68.9) ||23.8 (74.8) ||26.2 (79.2) ||25.5 (77.9) ||21.1 (70) ||16.2 (61.2) ||10.8 (51.4) ||6.8 (44.2) ||15.64 (60.15) |
Record low °C (°F)
|−9 (16) ||−4.0 (24.8) ||−2 (28) ||3.0 (37.4) ||10.0 (50) ||16.0 (60.8) ||19.0 (66.2) ||16.5 (61.7) ||10.0 (50) ||6.0 (42.8) ||1.0 (33.8) ||−2 (28) ||−9 (16) |
Rainfall mm (inches)
|100.6 (3.961) ||60.0 (2.362) ||50.2 (1.976) ||34.5 (1.358) ||9.2 (0.362) ||0.0 (0) ||0.2 (0.008) ||0.0 (0) ||0.0 (0) ||7.4 (0.291) ||39.1 (1.539) ||83.2 (3.276) ||384.4 (15.133) |
Avg. rainy days
|9.9 ||8.1 ||8.1 ||6.5 ||3.0 ||0.0 ||0.1 ||0.0 ||0.0 ||2.1 ||6.2 ||8.0 ||52 |
|75 ||68 ||59 ||49 ||32 ||22 ||24 ||28 ||29 ||40 ||59 ||73 ||46.5 |
Mean monthly sunshine hours
|131.6 ||158.4 ||192.3 ||217.7 ||272.5 ||325.6 ||322.7 ||317.0 ||291.3 ||234.8 ||158.2 ||121.9 ||2,744 |
|Source: NOAA (1961-1990) |
Dezfūl is the primary commercial center for northern Khuzestan and one of the main producers of agricultural products in Iran. Dezful is also a market for the agricultural products of Lorestan province. The city also contains a large cotton textile mill and many small- and medium-scale industries. The Dez Dam, 203 m (666 ft) high, completed in 1963, is 32 km (20 mi) upstream from Dezful; the dam provides water and electricity for the city, as well as irrigation for nearby sugarcane farms. Agriculture
Agriculture around Dezful was modernized in the mid-1960s by an Iranian-American joint venture company. Flowers and citrus fruits from Dezful are held in high regard in the country. Also popular are yogurt and cream from local buffalos. Various vegetables, fruit and grains are grown in Dezful. Meat, poultry and fish are also produced. Dezful Vahdati Air Force Base and Airport
Dezful Vahdati Air Force Base is a 4th IAF Air Force base and it is operational for F-5A, E, F and B fighters. The base was bombarded by the Iraqi Air Force during the early stages of the Iran–Iraq War. There is an annual air show for the remembrance of War Heroes at the beginning of the Iranian New Year (Nowruz): hold from March 21 to 4 April, it is the only military Air show in Iran.
The Dezful Air force base is also used for domestic passenger flights. there have been occasional bans of passenger flights in Dezful Air-Base because of military security matters in past 20 years, but at last based on an agreement between Military commanders and Dezful civil governors, a regular daily program of flights was settled at the end of 2007 by two domestic airlines, Iran Air Tour and Aseman. There are currently at least 1 or 2 flights from this base (which is now called Dezful airport) to Tehran and back from Tehran everyday. Transportation
There are direct flights from Tehran to Dezful (and reverse) at least twice a day. There are also weekly flights from Dezful to Mashhad (mawhad or mašhad). Dezful can also be reached by the Iranian railways.
Buses are available from almost all Iranian major cities to Dezful or one of its adjacent cities. Twin towns – sister cities