Drangiana

درانگیانا

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Updated:Monday 13th October 2014

Drangiana Definition

Ancient name for the Satrapy covering today's Sistan province, Baluchestan province and Pakistan . (Wikipedia) - Drangiana History of Afghanistan
Timeline
Ancient
Indus valley civilization 2200–1800 BC
Oxus civilization 2100–1800 BC
Aryans 1700–700 BC
Medes 728–550 BC
Achaemenids 550–330 BC
Seleucids 330–150 BC
Mauryans 305–180 BC
Greco-Bactrians 256–125 BC
Indo-Greeks 180–130 BC
Indo-Scythians (Sakas) 155–80? BC
Indo-Parthians 20 BC – 50? AD
Kushans 135 BC – 248 AD
Sasanians 230–651
Kidarites 320–465
Hephthalites 410–557
Medieval
Kabul Shahi 565–879
Principality of Chaghaniyan 7th–8th centuries
Rashidun Caliphate 652–661
Umayyads 661–750
Abbasids 750–821
Tahirids 821–873
Saffarids 863–900
Samanids 875–999
Ghaznavids 963–1187
Ghurids before 879–1215
Khwarezmids 1215–1231
Ilkhanate 1258–1353
Chagatai Khanate 1225–1370
Khiljis 1290–1320
Karts 1245–1381
Timurids 1370–1506
Arghuns 1479–1522
Mughals 1501–1738
Safavids 1510–1709
Modern
Hotaki Empire 1709–1738
Durrani Empire 1747–1826
Emirate of Afghanistan 1826–1919
Kingdom of Afghanistan 1919–1973
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Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 1996–2001
Interim/Transitional Administration 2001–2004
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since 2004
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Drangiana or Zarangiana (Greek: Δραγγιανή, also attested in Old Persian as Zranka) was a historical region and administrative division of the Achaemenid Empire. This region comprises territory around lake Hâmûn, wetlands in endorheic Sīstān basin on the Irano-Afghan-Pakistan border, and its primary watershed Helmand river in what is nowadays southwestern Afghanistan and the "Nok Kondi" ("blunt point") of western Pakistan.

History

In ancient times Drangiana was inhabited by an Iranian tribe which the ancient Greeks called Sarangians or Drangians. Drangiana was possibly subdued by another Iranian people, the Medes, and later, certainly, by the expanding Persian Empire of Cyrus the Great (559-530 BC). According to Herodotus, during the reign of Darius I (522-486 BC), the Drangians were placed in the same district as the Utians, Thamanaeans, Mycians, Drangians, and those deported to the Persian Gulf. The capital of Drangiana, called Zarin or Zranka (like the Province), is identified with great probability with the extensive Achaemenid site of Dahan-e Gholaman southeast of Zabol in Iran. Another significant center was the city of Prophthasia, possibly located at modern Farah in Afghanistan. On occasion Drangiana was governed by the same satrap as neighboring Arachosia. In 330-329 BC, the region was conquered by Alexander the Great. Drangiana continued to constitute an administrative district under Alexander and his successors. At Alexander''s death in 323 BC, it was governed by Stasanor of Soloi, and later, in 321 BC, it was allotted to another Cypriot, Stasandros. By the end of the 4th century BC, Drangiana was part of the Seleucid Empire, but in the second half of the 3rd century BC it was at least temporarily annexed by Euthydemos I of Bactria. In 206-205 BC Antiochos III (222-187 BC) seems to have recovered Drangiana for the Seleucids during his Anabasis. The history of Drangiana during the weakening of Seleucid rule is unclear, but by the mid-2nd century BC the area was conquered by the expanding Parthian Empire of the Arsacids.

Notes
  • ^ Schmitt, Rüdiger (15 December 1995). "DRANGIANA or Zarangiana; territory around Lake Hāmūn and the Helmand river in modern Sīstān". Encyclopædia Iranica. "The name of the country and its inhabitants is first attested as Old Persian z-r-k (i.e., Zranka)in the great Bīsotūn (q.v. iii) inscription of Darius I (q.v.; col. I l. 16), apparently the original name. This form is reflected in the Elamite (Sir-ra-an-qa and variants), Babylonian (Za-ra-an-ga), and Egyptian (srng or srnḳ) versions of the Achaemenid royal inscriptions, as well as in Greek Zarángai, Zarangaîoi, Zarangianḗ (Arrian; Isidore of Charax), and Sarángai (Herodotus) and in Latin Zarangae (Pliny). Instead of this original form, characterized by non-Persian z (perhaps from proto-IE. palatal *γ or *γh), in some Greek sources (chiefly those dependent upon the historians of Alexander the Great, q.v.) the perhaps hypercorrect Persianized variant (cf. Belardi,p. 183) with initial d-, *Dranka (or even *Dranga?), reflected in Greek Drángai, Drangḗ, Drangēnḗ, Drangi(a)nḗ (Ctesias; Polybius; Strabo; Diodorus; Ptolemy; Arrian; Stephanus Byzantius) and Latin Drangae, Drangiana, Drangiani (Curtius Rufus; Pliny; Ammianus Marcellinus; Justin) or Drancaeus (Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 6.106, 6.507) occurs." 
  • ^ Schmitt (1995).
  • ^ Gnoli (1993)
  • ^ Schmitt (1995).
  • ^ Schmitt (1995).
  • ^ Schmitt (1995).
  • Tags:Achaemenid, Achaemenid Empire, Afghan, Afghanistan, Alexander the Great, Arachosia, Bactria, Baluchestan, Caliphate, Cyrus, Cyrus the Great, Darius I, Drangiana, Egyptian, Elamite, Greco, Greek, Helmand, Herodotus, Hotaki, Ilkhanate, Indus, Iran, Iranian, Islamic, Islamic Republic, Kabul, Khanate, Medes, Mughals, Old Persian, Oxus, Oxus civilization, Pakistan, Parthian, Parthian Empire, Persian, Persian Empire, Persian Gulf, Ptolemy, Rashidun, Satrapy, Seleucid, Shahi, Sistan, Timurids, Wikipedia, Zabol

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