ID:489 Section: Person

Updated:Tuesday 14th October 2014

Ghilzai Definition

A race of Turks : Ghilzai is the name of one of the major Pashtun tribes found in Afghanistan and Pakistan. These Pashtun people are located mainly in southeastern Afghanistan, between Kandahar and Kabul, and extending eastwards towards the Soleyman Mountains into Pakistan. They are the second Pashtun tribal confederation after the Durrani.Origin : The Arachosia Satrapy and the Pactyan people during the Achaemenid Empire in 500 B.C.The Ghilzais are a confederation of Pashtun tribes whose origin is unknown. They are reputed by some to be descended at least in part from the Ghurids. (Wikipedia) - Ghilzai Pashtuns Kingdoms Religion
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The Ghilzai (Pashto: غلزی‎), also known historically as Ghilji (Pashto: غلجي‎), Khilji (Pashto: خلجي‎) and Gharzai (Pashto: غرزی‎, ghar literally means "mountain" and zai "born of"), are the second-largest Pashtun tribal confederacy found in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Ghilzai Tribes are today scattered all over Afghanistan and some parts of Pakistan but mainly in and around the regions between Zabul and Kabul area, and extending into eastern Suleiman Mountains. In Pakistan the Ghilzai Tribes are mostly settled in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Many of the migrating Kochi people of Afghanistan belong to the Ghilzai confederacy. During the 14th and 15th centuries, various Khilji dynasties and ruling entities took control in the Indian subcontinent, including the Khilji dynasty of Delhi, the Khilji dynasty of Bengal, Lodhi dynasty of Delhi and the Suri Dynasty.

  • 1 Decent, origin and History
  • 2 Ghilzai Dynasties, Ruling Entities and Personalities
    • 2.1 Lodi Dynasty
    • 2.2 Suri Dynasty
    • 2.3 The Hotak Dynasty
    • 2.4 Modern Era Ghilzai Personalities
  • 3 Ghilzai Location and economy
    • 3.1 Ghilzai in Afghanistan
    • 3.2 Ghilzai in Pakistan
  • 4 Ghilzai Religion and Customs
  • 5 Ghilzai Tribes
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References

Decent, origin and History Further information: Khilji dynasty, Lodi dynasty, Suri dynasty and Hotaki dynasty

The Ghilzai is a tribe or branch of the Batani Pashtuns whose origin is somewhat controversial. Etymologically the word Ghilzai is derived from Gharzai (غلزې), meaning "son of mountain" or "swordsman", perhaps via Turkic Wanderwort kir ("mountain, hill") and Turkic soy ("ancestry, descent, kin, tribe, progeny"). Some oriental scholars hold that the Ghilzais are the descendants of a mixed race of Hephthalite and Pakhtas who have been living in Afghanistan since the Vedic period. The first and the most plausible theory however suggests that they descended at least in part from the Ghurids:

" Ghalzaī tribal genealogies in general trace their early descent from the union of either Shah Ḥosayn, a Ghurid (q.v.) prince and, Bībī Mātō , a granddaughter of Qays ʿAbd al-Rašīd, the putative ancestor of all Pashtuns, or Mokarram Shah, a Pashtun prince from ḠGhūr, and the daughter of a Persian notable...".

This theory of decent from Bibi Mato, daughter of Batani, is also supported by one of the oldest books on Pashtuns Makhzen-e-Afghani.As such, the tribes comprising descendants of Bibi Mato collectively constitute the Ghilzai confideration of Pakhtuns.

However, the other theory suggest that they descended from the Khalaj or Khilji dynasty, who entered Afghanistan in the 10th century. According to Elphinstone, the Khilji:

"though Turks (Turco-Mongols) by descent...had so long settled among the Afghans that they had almost identified with that people."

Alam Khan Nasher, ca. 1895Ghilzai Dynasties, Ruling Entities and Personalities

According to Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani, a 13th-century historian, "there were over 15 great Khalji personalities who ruled from 1203 A.D. onwards over India and were spreading Khorasanian and Islamic culture all over northern India and the highlands of North Bengal.". A brief description of these dynasties and ruling entities is as under :

Lodi Dynasty

Lodi dynasty ruled over the Delhi Sultanate during its last phase. The Dynasty was founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi and it lasted from 1451 to 1526 when the last Lodi ruler, Ibrahim Lodi died

Suri Dynasty

Other Ghilzai dynasties included the Suri dynasty who was founded by the powerful medieval conqueror, Sher Shah Suri (Shere Khan), who defeated the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Chausa in June 1539 and again in Bilgram in May 1540.

The Hotak Dynasty

When the Hotak tribe, under the leadership of Mir Wais Hotak and Nasher Khan of the Ghaznavid revolted against the Safavids in 1709, the Ghilzai came into conflicts with their western neighbors. Mir Wais, an influential Afghan tribal leader and founder of the Hotaki dynasty, had visited the Persian court and studied their military weaknesses. The Afghan tribes rankled under the ruling Shia Safavids because of their continued attempts to convert the Pashtuns from Sunni to Shiaism Spawning Afghan nationalism, Mir Wais succeeded in expelling the Safavids from Kandahar. His eldest son, Mahmud, effected a successful invasion of Persia (now Iran) which culminated in the conquest of Isfahan and the deposition of the Safavid Shah Sultan Husayn. Mahmud was then crowned Shah and ruled for a brief period before being deposed by his own clansmen. His cousin and successor (Ashraf Hotaki) reigned for nearly five years before being killed by Baloch tribes while fleeing towards Kandahar. Their rule ended after the Siege of Kandahar in 1738.

Modern Era Ghilzai Personalities

In more recent times, three of the pro-communist presidents were Ghilzais, Nur Muhammad Taraki (of the Taraki tribe), Hafizullah Amin (of the Kharoti tribe), and Mohammed Najibullah (of the Ahmadzai sub tribe of suleimankhail). Although the Khalq was dominated mostly by Ghilzais, many of the mujahideen were also Ghilzais during the Soviet war in Afghanistan, including warlords Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Abdul Rasul Sayyaf. The Taliban leadership, such as the spiritual leader Mullah Omar and most of the Taliban functionaries have been likewise of the Ghilzai tribal confederacy, generating much ill will and disrepute for the Ghilzais.

Ghilzai Location and economy Ghilzai in AfghanistanTents of Afghan nomads in Badghis Province who are known in Pashto language as Kuchans. They migrate from region to region depending on the season. Early peasant farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan about 7,000 years ago.

In Afghanistan the Ghilzai are scattered all over the country but mainly settled around the regions between Zabul and Kabul provinces.The Afghan province of Paktika is considered to be a heartland of the Ghalzai tribe. Ghilzai sub-tribes in Paktika include the Kharoti, especially in the Sar Hawza and Urgon districts, the Andar and the largest single Ghilzai sub-tribe, the Suleimankhel, who are the majority in northern and western areas of Paktika such as; Katawaz. Many members of the Ghilzai tribe, such as; the Kharoti sub-tribe and particularly the Nasher clan were exiled from Loya Paktia (Paktia, Paktika and Khost) to Kunduz in the north by Amir Abdur Rahman Khan due to political reasons. They are predominantly a nomadic group unlike the Durranis who are usually found in permanent settlements.The Ghilzai mostly work as herdsmen as well as construction workers and in other jobs that allow them to travel. Often possessing great mechanical aptitude, the Ghilzai nonetheless have an extremely low literacy rate hovering below 10% in Afghanistan. The Ghilzai regularly cross over between Afghanistan and Pakistan often being exempted from customs due to the acceptance of their nomadic traditions by officials from both countries. Population estimates vary, but they are most likely around 20% to 25% of the population of Afghanistan and probably number over 9 million in Afghanistan alone with 4 million or more found in neighboring Pakistan mostly in Quetta.

Ghilzai in Pakistan

The Ghilzai super-tribe in Pakistan is usually recognized by its tribes and sub-tribes located in various parts of the country.In Quetta many members of Ghilzai tribe such as Kharoti, Suleimankhel, Andar are mainly concentrated in Northern and City Central Areas. Whereas in Khyber Pakhtunkwa, Ghilzai Sub-tribes like Niazi dwell both in plain and hilly areas. The Niazi are mostly settled in Bannu District Of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Mianwali district of The Punjab.

Ghilzai Religion and Customs

The Ghilzais are Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school, often devout to their faith and intensely follow the Pashtun code of honor known as Pashtunwali.

The tribesmen own several, tightly bound carpet and fabric businesses in the Middle East and Pakistan, especially in the major city of Karachi. The Ghilzai remain a somewhat divided family, with the Kharoti and the Suleimankhel being traditional rivals.

Ghilzai Tribes
  • Ali Khel
  • Andar tribe
  • Chani tribe
  • Danver(Ghilzai Tribe)
  • Hotak
  • Kharoti
  • Kochi people
  • Kari khel
  • Hameer khel
  • Nasar Tribe
  • Niazi
  • Omer Khel
  • Paroki
  • Tanoli
  • Tarakai
  • Tokhi
  • Suleimankhail
  • Varaki

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