Great Satan is an unofficial nickname for the USA. The term was originally used by Imam Khomeini in his speech on Nov, 5, 1979 to describe the U.S. atrocities towards the Iran. The US has been hostile towards the Iranian regime since the Islamic revolution in 1979 and has been involved in ugly acts such as sponsoring anti-Iranian terrorist groups.In order to understand why Iranians chant Death to America time by time, the following may suffice:It all started in 1953 when CIA overthrew the democratically elected Mohammed Mosaddegh in a military coup, after Nationalization of Oil. The CIA replaced him with a dictator, the Shah of Iran and installed a notorious secret police called SAVAK.With U.S. encouragement, Saddam Hussein invaded Iran in 1980. During this costly eight-year war, the CIA built up Hussein’s forces with sophisticated arms, intelligence, training and financial backing. This cemented Saddam Hussein’s power at home, allowing him to crush the many internal rebellions that erupted from time to time, sometimes with chemical bombs. It also gave him all the military might he needed to conduct further adventurism in Kuwait. (Wikipedia) - Great Satan
The Great Satan (Persian شيطان بزرگ Shaytân-e Bozorg) is a derogatory epithet for the United States of America in some Politics of Iranian foreign policy statements. Occasionally, these words have also been used toward the government of the United Kingdom.
The term was originally used by Iranian leader Ruhollah Khomeini in his speech on November 5, 1979 to describe the United States whom he accused of imperialism and the sponsoring of corruption throughout the world.
Ayatollah Khomeini also occasionally used the term "Iblis" (the primary devil in Islam) to refer to the United States and other Western countries. Contents
- 1 Background history
- 2 Definition of the term
- 3 Controversies
- 4 See also
- 5 References & notes
- 6 External links
The post-revolution government of Iran have considered the United States and the United Kingdom as Imperialist states, who have a long history of interfering in Iran''s internal affairs. In 1907, the Anglo-Russian Agreement between Russia and Britain divided Iran into spheres of influence, questioning although not terminating Iranian sovereignty. At the height of the Cold War, the administration of the U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower approved a joint Anglo-American operation to overthrow elected prime minister, Mohammad Mossadeq, in the pretext that his nationalist aspirations would lead to an eventual communist takeover. The operation was code-named Operation Ajax. At first, the military coup seemed to fail, and the Shah fled the country. After widespread rioting — and with help from the CIA and British intelligence services — Mossadeq was defeated and the Shah returned to power, ensuring support for Western oil interests and snuffing the perceived threat of communist expansion. General Fazlollah Zahedi, who led the military coup, became prime minister.
Ayatollah Khomeini was exiled to Turkey for his outspoken denunciation of the Shah''s Status of Forces bill, which granted U.S. military personnel diplomatic immunity for crimes committed on Iranian soil. From Turkey, Khomeini moved to Iraq in 1965 and remained there until 1978 before moving to Paris for four months. He then returned to Iran and led the 1979 Iranian revolution.
The United States supported the Shah starting from the 1950s, but this waned toward the end of the 1970s, particularly under the Carter administration. Many Iranians hated the Shah, and felt that the U.S. was against them. When Saddam Hussein came into power, the U.S. also at first supported him. Demonstrators commonly chanted slogans such as "Independence, Freedom and Islamic Republic". Definition of the term
Khomeini is quoted as saying on November 5, 1979, " the great Satan, the wounded snake." The term was used extensively during and after the Islamic Revolution, but it continues to be used in some Iranian political circles. Use of the term at rallies is often accompanied by shouts of "Marg bar Amrika!" ("Death to America" is an inexact translation of "Marg Bar Amrika", but is supposed to mean "Down with America"). The term has also found in political statements of Muslim and anti-American activists throughout the world. It is used in academic journals and media. Lesser Satan
Khomeini called the USSR—the United States'' principal antagonist during the Cold War—the "Lesser Satan" because of its atheistic Communism, and said that Iran should support neither side. Controversies
The term has been discussed extensively and addressed within the context of Iran–United States relations by some members of the United States foreign policy establishment.
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