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Updated:Sunday 12th October 2014

Harbor Definition

(Wikipedia) - Harbor For other uses, see Harbor (disambiguation).Capri harbor, Italy seen from Anacapri

A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences), or haven, is a body of water where ships, boats, and barges can seek shelter from stormy weather, or else are stored for future use.

Harbors can be natural or artificial. An artificial harbor has deliberately constructed breakwaters, sea walls, or jettys, or otherwise, they could have been constructed by dredging, and these require maintenance by further periodic dredging. An example of the artificial harbor is Long Beach Harbor, California, which was an array of salt marshes and tidal flats too shallow for modern merchant ships before it was first dredged in the early 20th century.

In contrast, a natural harbor is surrounded on several sides by prominences of land. Examples of natural harbors include San Francisco Bay, California and San Diego Harbor, California.

Harbors and ports are often confused with each other. A port is a facility for loading and unloading vessels; ports are usually located in harbors.

  • 1 Artificial harbors
  • 2 Natural harbors
  • 3 Ice-free harbors
  • 4 Important harbors
  • 5 See also
  • 6 Notes
  • 7 External links

Artificial harbors

Artificial harbors are frequently built for use as ports. The oldest artificial harbor known is the Ancient Egyptian site at Wadi al-Jarf, on the Red Sea coast, which is at least 4500 years old (ca. 2600-2550 BC, reign of King Khufu). The largest artificially created harbor is Jebel Ali in Dubai. Other large and busy artificial harbors are located at: Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Port of Houston, Texas; Port of Long Beach, California; and Port of Los Angeles in San Pedro, California.

The Ancient Carthaginians constructed fortified, artificial harbors called cothons.

Natural harborsA natural harbor in Vizhinjam, India

A natural harbor is a landform where a part of a body of water is protected and deep enough to furnish anchorage. Many such harbors are rias. Natural harbors have long been of great strategic naval and economic importance, and many great cities of the world are located on them. Having a protected harbor reduces or eliminates the need for breakwaters as it will result in calmer waves inside the harbor. Some examples are New York Harbor in the United States; Poole Harbour in England; Kingston Harbour in Jamaica; Grand Harbour in Malta; Subic Bay in Zambales, the Philippines; Sydney Harbour in Australia; Pearl Harbor in Hawaii; Trincomalee Harbour in Sri Lanka; San Francisco Bay in California; Visakhapatnam Harbour in Andhra Pradesh, India; Killybegs in County Donegal Ireland; Halifax Harbour in Nova Scotia, Canada,Cork Harbour, Ireland and Waitemata Harbour in Auckland, New Zealand.

Ice-free harbors

For harbors near the North and South Poles, being ice-free is an important advantage, especially when it is year-round. Examples of these include Murmansk, Russia; Pechenga, Russia; St. Petersburg, Russia; Hammerfest, Norway; Vardø, Norway; and Prince Rupert Harbour, Canada. The world''s southmost harbor, located at Antarctica''s Winter Quarters Bay (77° 50′ South), is potentially ice-free, depending on the summertime pack ice conditions.

Important harborsThe tiny harbor at the village of Clovelly, Devon, EnglandOld Harbor in Lüneburg, Germany.The harbor of Piraeus in Greece.Port Jackson, Sydney.The harbor of Gorey, Jersey falls dry at low tide.Port of Kaohsiung

Although the world''s busiest port is a hotly contested title, in 2006 the world''s busiest harbor by cargo tonnage was the Port of Shanghai.

The following are large natural harbors:

  • Algeciras, Spain
  • Amsterdam, Port of Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • Antwerp, Port of Antwerp, Flanders, Belgium
  • Baltimore''s Inner Harbor, Maryland, United States
  • Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, United States
  • Bremerhaven, Germany
  • Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Busan, Korea
  • Cartagena, Colombia
  • Charleston, South Carolina, United States
  • Port of Chittagong, Chittagong City, Bangladesh
  • Cork Harbour, Ireland
  • Duluth–Superior harbor, Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • Durban, South Africa
  • Falmouth, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom
  • Freetown Harbour, Sierra Leone
  • Golden Horn, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Gothenburg, Sweden
  • Grand Harbour, Malta
  • Gwangyang, Korea
  • Hai Phong Port, Haiphong, Vietnam
  • Halifax Harbour, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • Hamburg Harbour, Germany
  • Hampton Roads, Norfolk, Virginia, United States
  • Havana Harbor
  • Incheon, Korea
  • Izmir, Turkey
  • Port of Jakarta (Tanjung Priok), Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan
  • Kingston, Jamaica
  • Kobe Harbour, Kobe, Japan
  • Kochi, India
  • Lisbon, Portugal
  • Lushunkou, Dalian, China
  • Mahón, Minorca, Spain
  • Manila Bay, Philippines
  • Maputo, Mozambique
  • Milford Haven, Wales, United Kingdom
  • Montevideo, Uruguay
  • Mumbai, India
  • Nassau, Bahamas
  • New York Harbor, United States
  • Oslofjord, Norway
  • Pearl Harbor, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • Piraeus, Attiki, Greece
  • Plymouth Sound, Devon, England, United Kingdom
  • Poole Harbour, Dorset, England, United Kingdom
  • Port Jackson, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • Port Phillip, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • Portland Harbor, Casco Bay, Maine, United States
  • Provincetown Harbor, Provincetown, Massachusetts, United States
  • Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara Bay, Brazil
  • Rotterdam, Port of Rotterdam, Netherlands
  • Salvador, All Saint''s Bay, Brazil
  • San Antonio, Chile
  • San Diego Bay, San Diego, California, United States
  • San Francisco Bay, California, United States
  • Sankt Petersburg, Russia
  • Sevastopol Harbour, Sevastopol, Ukraine
  • Subic Bay, Zambales, Philippines
  • Tanger-Med, Tangier, Morocco
  • Tauranga Harbour, Tauranga, New Zealand
  • Tokyo Bay, Tokyo, Japan
  • Trincomalee, Sri Lanka
  • Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Port of Tyne, Tyne & Wear, United Kingdom
  • Ulsan, Korea
  • Vancouver, Canada
  • Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong
  • Visakhapatnam Port, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • Vizhinjam, Trivandrum, India
  • Waitemata Harbour, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Willemstad, Curaçao
  • Wellington Harbour, New Zealand
Port of Szczecin, Poland

Other notable harbors include:

  • Belém, Brazil
  • Port of Bruges-Zeebrugge, Flanders, Belgium
  • Port of Genoa, Italy
  • Port of Gdańsk, Poland
  • Kahului, Hawaii, United States
  • Kaipara Harbour, New Zealand
  • Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  • Keelung, Taiwan
  • Keppel Harbour, Singapore
  • Kilindini Harbour, Kenya
  • Manukau Harbour, Auckland, New Zealand
  • New Haven Harbor, Connecticut, United States
  • Portland Harbour, Dorset, England, United Kingdom
  • Rades, Tunisia
  • Rio Grande, Brazil
  • San Juan, Puerto Rico, United States
  • Sydney Harbour, Australia
  • Port of Szczecin, Poland
  • Trondheim, Norway
  • Valparaiso, Chile

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