Hulagu Khan (ca 1217-Feb, 8 1265) was the blood-thirsty grandson of Genghis Khan, the Mongol ruler. He conquered much of Southwest Asia by sword. Hulagu's army expanded the southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire, founding the Ilkhanates in Persia. Under Hulagu, the Mongols destroyed the greatest center of Islamic power, Baghdad, and also weakened Damascus.Like his grandfather, he committed mass-murder and genocide in great area compromising today's Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, and Pakistan. (Wikipedia) - Hulagu Khan (Redirected from Hulagu) This article is about the founder of the Ilkhanate. For the Chagatai khan, see Qara Hülëgü.
|IlKhan of Persia |
|Painting of Hulagu Khan by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, early 14th century. |
|Doquz Khatun |
|Sorghaghtani Beki |
|15 October 1218 |
|8 February 1265 |
|Shahi Island, Lake Urmia |
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (Mongolian: Hülegü Khaan, "Warrior"; Mongolian Cyrillic: Хүлэг хаан; Kurdish: هۆلاکۆ; Turkish: Hülagû Han; Chagatai/Urdu: ہلاکو Hulaku; Persian: هولاکو خان; Arabic هولاكو خان/ هَلَاوُن; Chinese: 旭烈兀; c. 1218 – 8 February 1265), was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. Son of Tolui and the Kerait princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of Ariq Böke, Möngke Khan, and Kublai Khan.
Hulagu''s army greatly expanded the southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire, founding the Ilkhanate of Persia, a precursor to the eventual Safavid dynasty, and then the modern state of Iran. Under Hulagu''s leadership, the Mongols destroyed the greatest center of Islamic power, Baghdad, and also weakened Damascus, causing a shift of Islamic influence to the Mamluks in Cairo. Under Hulagu''s dynasty, Iranian historians began writing in Persian rather than Arabic. Contents
- 1 Background
- 2 Military campaigns
- 3 Siege of Baghdad
- 4 Conquest of Syria (1260)
- 5 Civil War
- 6 Communications with Europe
- 7 Death
- 8 Legacy
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Mongol invasions and conquests
Hulagu was born to Tolui, one of Genghis Khan''s sons, and Sorghaghtani Beki, an influential Kereyid princess. Sorghaghtani successfully navigated Mongol politics, arranging for all of her sons to become Mongol leaders. She was a Nestorian Christian, and Hulagu was friendly to Christianity. Hulagu''s favorite wife, Dokuz Khatun, was also a Christian, as was his closest friend and general, Kitbuqa. It is recorded however that he was a Buddhist as he neared death, against the will of Dokuz Khatun.
Hulagu had at least three children: Abaqa, Teguder Ahmad, and Taraqai. Abaqa was second Ilkhan of Persia from 1265–82, Teguder Ahmad was third Ilkhan from 1282–84, and Taraqai''s son Baydu became Ilkhan in 1295. Mirkhond mentions two more children, given as Hyaxemet and Tandon in an early translation; Hyaxemet initially served as governor of Armenia and Azerbaijan, while Tandon was given Dyarbekir and Iraq. The order of birth is listed as Abaqa, then Hyaxemet, then Tandon, and then Teguder and Taraqai. Military campaignsThe siege of Alamût in 1256A Mughal miniature painting of Hulagu''s siege of Alamut.
Hulagu''s brother Möngke had been installed as Great Khan in 1251. In 1255, Möngke charged Hulagu with leading a massive Mongol army to conquer or destroy the remaining Muslim states in southwestern Asia. Hulagu''s campaign sought the subjugation of the Lurs of southern Iran, the destruction of the Hashshashin sect, the submission or destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad, the submission or destruction of the Ayyubid states in Syria based in Damascus, and finally, the submission or destruction of the Bahri Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Möngke ordered Hulagu to treat kindly those who submitted and utterly destroy those who did not. Hulagu vigorously carried out the latter part of these instructions.
Hulagu marched out with perhaps the largest Mongol army ever assembled – by order of Möngke, two-tenths of the empire''s fighting men were gathered for Hulagu''s army. He easily destroyed the Lurs, and the Assassins (the Hashshashin) surrendered their impregnable fortress of Alamut without a fight, accepting a deal that spared the lives of their people. Siege of Baghdad Main article: Siege of Baghdad (1258)
Hulagu''s Mongol army set out for Baghdad in November 1257. Once near the city he divided his forces to threaten the city on both the east and west banks of the Tigris. Hulagu demanded surrender, but the caliph, Al-Musta''sim, refused. The caliph''s army repulsed some of the forces attacking from the west but were defeated in the next battle. The attacking Mongols broke dikes and flooded the ground behind the caliph''s army, trapping them. Much of the army was slaughtered or drowned.
The Mongols under Chinese general Guo Kan laid siege to the city on January 29, 1258, constructing a palisade and a ditch and wheeling up siege engines and catapults. The battle was short by siege standards. By February 5 the Mongols controlled a stretch of the wall. The caliph tried to negotiate but was refused. On February 10 Baghdad surrendered. The Mongols swept into the city on February 13 and began a week of destruction. The Grand Library of Baghdad, containing countless precious historical documents and books on subjects ranging from medicine to astronomy, was destroyed. Survivors said that the waters of the Tigris ran black with ink from the enormous quantity of books flung into the river. Citizens attempted to flee but were intercepted by Mongol soldiers.Hulagu (left) imprisons the Caliph among his treasures to starve him to death. Medieval depiction from "Le livre des merveilles", 15th century.
Death counts vary widely and cannot be easily substantiated: A low estimate is about 90,000 dead; higher estimates range from 200,000 to a million. The Mongols looted and then destroyed. Mosques, palaces, libraries, hospitals — grand buildings that had been the work of generations — were burned to the ground. The caliph was captured and forced to watch as his citizens were murdered and his treasury plundered. Il Milione, a book on the travels of Venetian merchant Marco Polo, states that Hulagu starved the caliph to death, but there is no corroborating evidence for that. Most historians believe the Mongol and Muslim accounts that the caliph was rolled up in a rug and the Mongols rode their horses over him, as they believed that the earth was offended if touched by royal blood. All but one of his sons were killed. Baghdad was a depopulated, ruined city for several centuries. Smaller states in the region hastened to reassure Hulagu of their loyalty, and the Mongols turned to Syria in 1259, conquering the Ayyubids and sending advance patrols as far ahead as Gaza.
A thousand northern Chinese engineer squads accompanied the Mongol Khan Hulagu during his conquest of the Middle East. Conquest of Syria (1260) See also: Mongol raids into PalestineHulagu and Queen Doquz Qatun depicted as the new "Constantine and Helen", in a Syriac Bible.
In 1260 Mongol forces combined with those of their Christian vassals in the region, including the army of Cilician Armenia under Hetoum I and the Franks of Bohemond VI of Antioch. This force conquered Muslim Syria, a domain of the Ayyubid dynasty. They took the city of Aleppo and, under the Christian general Kitbuqa, took Damascus on March 1, 1260. A Christian Mass was celebrated in the Grand Mosque of the Umayyads, and numerous mosques were profaned. Many historical accounts describe the three Christian rulers Hetoum, Bohemond, and Kitbuqa entering the city of Damascus together in triumph, though some modern historians such as David Morgan have questioned this story as apocryphal.
The invasion effectively destroyed the Ayyubid Dynasty, theretofore powerful ruler of large parts of the Levant, Egypt, and Arabia. The last Ayyubid king An-Nasir Yusuf was killed by Hulagu in 1260. With the Islamic power center of Baghdad gone and Damascus weakened, the center of Islamic power transferred to the Egyptian Mamluks in Cairo.
Hulagu intended to continue south through Palestine towards Cairo to engage the Mamluks. He sent a threatening letter to Mamluk Sultan Qutuz in Cairo. He demanded that Qutuz open Cairo or it would be destroyed like Baghdad. At that moment Mongke Khan died, recalling Hulagu, as an heir and potential Great Khan, to Mongolia in order to elect a new Khan. Hulagu left behind only two tumens (20,000 men) under the leadership of his favorite general Naiman Kitbuqa Noyan, a Nestorian Christian. Upon receiving news of Hulagu''s departure, Qutuz quickly assembled a large army at Cairo and invaded Palestine. Qutuz allied with a fellow Mamluk, Baibars, who wanted to defend Islam after the Mongols capture of Damascus, sacking of Baghdad, and subjugation of Bilad al-Sham.
The Mongols, for their part, attempted to form a Franco-Mongol alliance with (or at least, demand the submission of) the remnant of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, now centered on Acre, but Pope Alexander IV had forbidden this. Tensions between Franks and Mongols had also increased when Julian of Sidon caused an incident resulting in the death of one of Kitbuqa''s grandsons. Angered, Kitbuqa had sacked Sidon. The Barons of Acre, contacted by the Mongols, had also been approached by the Mamluks, seeking military assistance against the Mongols. Although the Mamluks were traditional enemies of the Franks, the Barons of Acre recognized the Mongols as the more immediate menace. Instead of taking sides, the Crusaders opted for a position of cautious neutrality between the two forces. In an unusual move, however, they agreed that the Egyptian Mamluks could march north through the Crusader territories unmolested and even camp to resupply near Acre. Battle of Ayn Jalut (1260) Main article: Battle of Ayn JalutHulagu Khan leading his army.
When news arrived that the Mongols had crossed the Jordan River, Sultan Qutuz and his forces mainly Egyptians proceeded southeast toward the ''Spring Of Goliath'' at Ayn Jalut in the Jezreel Valley. They met the Mongol army of about 20,000 in the Battle of Ayn Jalut and fought relentlessly for many hours. Mamluk leader Baibars mostly implemented hit-and-run tactics in an attempt to lure the Mongol forces into chasing him. Baibars and Qutuz had hidden the bulk of their forces in the hills to wait in ambush for the Mongols to come into range. The Mongol leader Kitbuqa, already provoked by the constant fleeing of Baibars and his troops, decided to march forwards with all his troops on the trail of the fleeing Egyptians. When the Mongols reached the highlands, Egyptians appeared from hiding, and the Mongols found themselves surrounded by enemy forces as the hidden troops hit them from the sides and Qutuz attacked the Mongol rear. Estimates of the size of the Egyptian army range from 24,000 to 120,000. The Mongols broke free of the trap and even mounted a temporarily successful counterattack, but their numbers had been depleted to the point that the outcome was inevitable. When the battle finally ended, the Egyptian army had accomplished what had never been done before, defeating a Mongol army in close combat. Almost the whole Mongol army that had remained in the region, including Kitbuqa, were either killed or captured that day. The battle of Ayn Jalut established a low-water mark for the Mongol conquest. The Mongol invasion east and south came to a stop after Ayn Jalut. Civil War See also: Berke–Hulagu warCoin of Hulagu, with the symbol of a hare.
After the succession was settled and his brother Kublai Khan was established as Great Khan, Hulagu returned to his lands by 1262. When he massed his armies to attack the Mamluks and avenge the defeat at Ain Jalut, however, he was instead drawn into civil war with Batu Khan''s brother Berke. Berke Khan, a Muslim convert, had promised retribution in his rage after Hulagu''s sack of Baghdad and allied himself with the Mamluks. He initiated a series of raids on Hulagu''s territories, led by Nogai Khan. Hulagu suffered a severe defeat in an attempted invasion north of the Caucasus in 1263. This was the first open war between Mongols and signaled the end of the unified empire. Communications with Europe