(Wikipedia) - Johor
Johor Darul Takzim جوهر دارالتّعظيم
|Motto: Kepada Allah Berserah كڤدالله برسراه (To Allah We Surrender) |
|Anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor لاڬو بڠسا جوهر (Johor State Anthem) |
| Johor in Malaysia |
|Coordinates: 1°29′14″N 103°46′52″E / 1.48722°N 103.78111°E / 1.48722; 103.78111Coordinates: 1°29′14″N 103°46′52″E / 1.48722°N 103.78111°E / 1.48722; 103.78111 |
|14th century |
|31 January 1942 |
Accession into Federation of Malaya
Independence as part of the Federation of Malaya
|31 August 1957 |
|Johor Bahru |
|Muar (Bandar Maharani) |
|Sultan Ibrahim Ismail |
• Menteri Besar
|Mohamed Khaled Nordin (BN) |
|19,210 km2 (7,420 sq mi) |
|174/km2 (450/sq mi) |
|Johorean / Johorian |
Human Development Index
• HDI (2010)
|0.733 (high) (6th) |
|79xxx to 86xxx |
|07 06 (Muar and Ledang) |
|^ Kota Iskandar is a state administrative centre ^ Except Muar and Ledang |
Johor is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city and royal city of Johor is Johor Bahru, formerly known as Tanjung Puteri (Malay for Princess''s Cape) and Muar respectively. The old state capital is Johor Lama.
Johor is surrounded by Pahang to the north, Malacca and Negeri Sembilan to the northwest, and the Straits of Johor to the south which separates Johor and the Republic of Singapore. The state also shares a maritime border with the Riau Archipelago from the east and Riau mainland on the west by the South China Sea and the Strait of Malacca respectively, both of Indonesian territories.
Johor is also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Ta''zim, or "Abode of Dignity", and as Johore in English. Contents
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Population and demographics
- 4 Geography
- 4.1 Climate
- 4.2 Links to Singapore
- 5 Government and politics
- 5.1 Monarchy
- 5.2 State government
- 5.3 Districts
- 6 Economy
- 7 Education
- 8 Transportation hubs
- 9 Media
- 10 Tourism
- 10.1 Major tourist attractions
- 10.2 International theme parks
- 10.3 National parks and forest reserves
- 10.4 Islands and beaches
- 10.5 Mausoleum of Sultan Mahmud Mangkat Dijulang
- 11 Culture
- 11.1 Language
- 11.2 Clothing
- 11.3 Songs
- 11.4 Folk dances and music
- 11.4.1 Zapin dance
- 11.4.2 Kuda Kepang
- 11.5 Legends
- 11.5.1 Legend of Badang
- 11.5.2 Legend of Malim Deman
- 11.5.3 Legend of Gunung Ledang
- 11.5.4 Awang''s spear returned to Dayang
- 11.5.5 Black Tongue Warrior
- 11.6 Hamdolok
- 11.7 Cuisine
- 11.7.1 Javanese-influenced cuisine
- 12 References
- 13 Bibliography
- 14 External links
The name "Johor" originated from the Arabic word Jauhar, ''gem/jewel''. Malays tend to name a place after natural objects in great abundance or having visual dominance. Before the name Johor was adopted, the area south of the Muar River to Singapore island was known as Ujong Tanah or ''land''s end'' in Malay, due to its location at the end of the Malay Peninsula. Coincidentally, Johor is the most southern point of the Asian continental mainland. History Main article: Sultanate of Johor
In the early 16th century, the Sultanate of Johor was founded by the Alauddin Riayat Shah II, the son of Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca who fled from the invading Portuguese in Malacca. Johor sultanate was one of the two successor states of the Melaka empire. Upon Malacca''s defeat by the Portuguese in 1511, Alauddin Riayat Shah II established a monarchy in Johor which posed a threat to the Portuguese. The Sultanate of Perak was the other successor state of Malacca and was established by Mahmud Shah''s other son, Muzaffar Shah I. During Johor''s peak the whole of Pahang and the present day Indonesian territories of the Riau archipelago and part of Sumatra Island was under Johor''s rule.
A series of succession struggles were interspersed with strategic alliances struck with regional clans and foreign powers, which maintained Johor''s political and economic hold in the Straits. In competition with the Acehnese of northern Sumatra and the port-kingdom of Malacca under Portuguese rule, Johor engaged in prolonged warfare with their rivals, often striking alliances with friendly Malay states and with the Dutch. In 1641, Johor in co-operation with the Dutch succeeded in capturing Malacca. By 1660, Johor had become a flourishing entrepôt, although weakening and splintering of the empire in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century reduced its sovereignty.
In the 18th century, the Bugis of Sulawesi and the Minangkabau of Sumatra controlled the political powers in the Johor-Riau Empire. However, in the early 19th century, Malay and Bugis rivalry commanded the scene. In 1819, the Johor-Riau Empire was divided up into the mainland Johor, controlled by the Temenggong, and the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga, controlled by the Bugis. In 1855, under the terms of a treaty between the British in Singapore and Sultan Ali of Johor, control of the state was formally ceded to Dato'' Temenggong Daing Ibrahim, with the exception of the Kesang area (Muar), which was handed over in 1877. Temenggong Ibrahim opened up Bandar Tanjung Puteri (later to become Johor''s present-day capital) in south Johor as a major town.Flag of Johor. The colour blue represents the State Government, the colour red for warriors defending the state, the white crescent and 5-sided star represent the monarchy and Islam.
Temenggong Ibrahim was succeeded by his son, Dato'' Temenggong Abu Bakar, who later took the title Seri Maharaja Johor by Queen Victoria of England. In 1886, he was formally crowned the Sultan of Johor. Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor (1864–1895) implemented a state constitution, developed a British-style administration and constructed the Istana Besar, the official residence of the Sultan. For his achievements, Sultan Abu Bakar is known by the title "Father of Modern Johor". The increased demand for black pepper and gambier in the nineteenth century lead to the opening up of farmlands to the influx of Chinese immigrants, which created Johor''s initial economic base. The Kangchu system was put in place with the first settlement of Kangkar Tebrau established in 1844. The decline of the Kangchu economy at the end of the 19th century coincided with the opening of the railway line connecting Johor Bahru and the Federated Malay States in 1909 and the emergence of rubber plantations throughout the state. Under the British Resident system, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Abu Bakar''s successor, was forced to accept a British adviser in 1904. D.G. Campbell was dispatched as the first British adviser to Johor. From the 1910s to the 1940s, Johor emerged as Malaya''s top rubber producing state, a position it has held until recently. Johor was also until recently the largest oil palm producer in Malaysia.
During World War II, Johor Bahru became the last city on the Malay peninsula to fall to the Japanese. Allied Forces, Australian, Malayan and Indian forces held out for four days in what was known as the Battle of Gemas, the General Yamashita Tomoyuki had his headquarters on top of Bukit Serene and coordinated the downfall of Singapore.
Johor gave birth to the Malay opposition which derailed the Malayan Union plan. Malays under Dato'' Onn Jaafar''s leadership formed the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) in Johor on 11 May 1946. (UMNO is currently the main component party of Malaysia''s ruling Barisan Nasional coalition.) In 1948, Johor joined the Federation of Malaya, which gained Independence in 1957. Population and demographics
Johor is Malaysia''s second most populous state with the nation''s biggest conurbation, Iskandar Malaysia. Johor''s geographical position in the southern of Peninsular Malaysia contributed to the state''s rapid development as Malaysia''s transportation and industrial hub. It''s also borders with Singapore. This created jobs and attracted migrants from other states as well as overseas, especially from Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Myanmar, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and China. In recent decades, the influx of illegal immigrants, particularly from Indonesia, has further contributed to Johor''s population.
Rank Districts Population 2010
|1 ||Johor Bahru ||1,386,569 |
|2 ||Batu Pahat ||417,458 |
|3 ||Kluang ||298,332 |
|4 ||Kulaijaya ||251,650 |
|5 ||Muar ||247,957 |
|6 ||Kota Tinggi ||193,210 |
|7 ||Segamat ||189,820 |
|8 ||Pontian ||155,541 |
|9 ||Ledang ||136,852 |
|10 ||Mersing ||70,894 |
Johor has the second largest population in Malaysia at 3,233,434 as of 2010. The state''s ethnic composition consists of Malay 58.9%, Chinese 33.6%, Indian 7.1%, and other ethnic groups 0.4%. Religion
Religion in Johor - 2010 Census
|religion || || ||percent || |
|Islam || ||58.2% |
|Buddhism || ||29.6% |
|Hinduism || ||6.6% |
|Christianity || ||3.3% |
|Chinese Ethnic Religion || ||1.3% |
|Other || ||1.4% |
|No religion || ||0.7% |
As of 2010 Census the population of Johor is 58.2% Muslim, 29.6% Buddhist, 6.6% Hindu, 3.3% Christian, 1.3% Taoist or Chinese religion adherent, 1.4% follower of other religions, and 0.7% non-religious. GeographyGeography of Johor in Panti Forest.
Johor is the 5th largest state by land area and 2nd most populous state in Malaysia, with a total land area of 19,210 km2 (7,420 sq mi), and a population of 3,233,434 as of 2010.
It is the southernmost state in Peninsular Malaysia, and is located between the 1°20"N and 2°35"N latitudes. The highest point in Johor is Gunung Ledang (1276 m). Gunung Ledang is also known as Mount Ophir. Johor also has a 400 km coastline on both the East and the West coasts.
Johor has 8 large islands with numerous smaller ones, namely Pulau Aur, Pulau Besar, Pulau Dayang, Pulau Lima, Pulau Pemanggil, Pulau Rawa, Pulau Sibu, Pulau Tengah and Pulau Tinggi. Climate
Johor has a tropical rainforest climate with monsoon rain from November until February blowing from the South China Sea. The average annual rainfall is 1778 mm with average temperatures ranging between 25.5 °C (78 °F) and 27.8 °C (82 °F). Humidity is between 82 and 86%.
On 19 December 2006, a continuous heavy downpour occurred in Johor, which led to the 2006-2007 Malaysian floods. Many towns such as Muar, Kota Tinggi and Segamat were seriously flooded with water levels as high as 10 feet (3.0 m) above ground level recorded in some areas. 15 lives were lost and many possessions destroyed, and this resulted in huge financial losses in Johor. More than 100,000 victims were evacuated to flood relief centres. Links to Singapore Further information: Johor-Singapore Causeway and Malaysia-Singapore Second Link See also: Geography and climate of SingaporeMalaysia''s new Customs Complex (Sultan Iskandar Complex) at Johor BahruThe water pipeline at the causeway which provides much of Singapore''s water supply.
Johor is linked to Singapore via two road connections: the Johor-Singapore Causeway and the Malaysia-Singapore Second Link. The Causeway also carries a railway line, which is now part of the main rail route linking Singapore with Thailand via Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Butterworth.
The Johor-Singapore Causeway (length: 1038 m) was designed by Messrs Coode, Fizmaurice, Wilson and Mitchell of Westminster, while the construction contract was awarded to Topham, Jones & Railton Ltd of London. Construction of the causeway started in 1919 and was completed in 1923.
It was preceded by a railway ferry link in 1903 which connected Johor Bahru to Singapore, then the administrative headquarters of British interests in South-East Asia. In 1909 this ferry link connected with the Johore State Railway which opened that year between Johore Bharu and Gemas, providing a direct rail route with the rest of the Federated Malay States. Prior to 1909 travellers between Singapore and the Federated Malay States had to travel by sea between Singapore and Port Dickson.
The causeway has been a source of contention ever since Singapore seceded from Malaysia in 1965. Stagnating water caused by the Causeway has raised health concerns in Johor. Malaysia proposed to replace the causeway with a bridge, allowing water, tide movement and ship movement from Pasir Gudang, the older port in Johor to the new port in Gelang Patah through the Straits of Johor. Singapore rejected this proposal, after which Malaysia came up with the idea of what became known as "the crooked half-bridge", 25m above water level, and descending halfway to link up with the low-level causeway. The railway was to have a swing bridge. The scheme was part of the Gerbang Selatan Bersepadu project. It had been previously announced that the bridge project would go ahead, even without the agreement of the Singaporean government. The bridge would become a straight bridge if the Singaporean government accepted the project. Construction work on the bridge stopped, however, on the orders of the former Prime Minister, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, who cited the unwillingness of Malaysia to sell sand and allow the use of Malaysian airspace by Singapore as a return for Singaporean consent to the bridge''s construction.
Animosity between previous leaders of both countries has abated with the rise of new leaders, Abdullah Badawi as Malaysian Prime Minister replacing Mahathir Mohamad and Lee Hsien Loong in Singapore replacing Goh Chok Tong. It has renewed talks and improved relations between countries.
Some analysts have concluded that replacing the causeway with a bridge would allow a creation of a comprehensive port system linking Johor Port and Tanjung Pelepas Port in Johor, some go on to suggest that this presents a threat to Singapore''s port activity, thus explaining the initial reluctance of Singapore to agree to the causeway''s replacement.
The second road connection, the Malaysia-Singapore Second Link, was completed in October 1997; the link consists of a 1920 m twin-deck bridge supporting a dual-three lane carriageway linking Kampong Ladang in Tanjung Kupang, Johor, to Jalan Ahmad Ibrahim in Tuas, Singapore. Government and politics MonarchySultan''s Palace in Johor Bahru
Johor is a constitutional monarchy. Johor was the first state in Malaysia to adopt the constitutional monarchy system via Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor (Johor State Constitution) written by Sultan Abu Bakar. The constitutional head of Johor is the Sultan. This hereditary position can only be held by a member of the Johor Royal Family, who is descended from Sultan Abu Bakar. Until 2010 the State''s Sultan since 1981 had been Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj. His Majesty died on Fri, 22 January 2010. Tunku Ibrahim Ismail Ibni Almarhum Sultan Iskandar was proclaimed as the new Sultan of Johor on Sat, 23 January 2010.
Johor was the first state and currently the only state in Malaysia that has its own military force called the Royal Johor Military Force or ''Timbalan Setia Negeri''. It is a private army of the Sultan of Johor located at Johor Bahru City. State government