Konya : ancient Iconium city in central Turkey : First settled in the 3rd millennium BC, it is one of the oldest urban centres in the world. Influenced by Greek culture from the 3rd century BC, Iconium came under Roman rule by 25 BC. It was taken by the Seljuk dynasty с 1072. Renamed Konya, it was a major cultural centre in the 13th century and was home to the Sufi brotherhood known as "whirling dervishes." Later ruled by the Mongols, it was annexed to the Ottoman Empire с 1467. It declined during Ottoman rule but revived after the Istanbul-Baghdad railway opened in 1896. An important industrial centre, it is also a trade centre for the agricultural area surrounding it. (Wikipedia) - Konya "Iconium" redirects here. For other uses, see Iconium (disambiguation). For other uses, see Konya (disambiguation).
|Metropolitan Municipality |
|KonyaLocation of Konya, Turkey |
|Coordinates: 37°52′N 32°29′E / 37.867°N 32.483°E / 37.867; 32.483Coordinates: 37°52′N 32°29′E / 37.867°N 32.483°E / 37.867; 32.483 |
| Turkey |
|Central Anatolia |
|Tahir Akyürek (AKP) |
• Metropolitan Municipality
|38,873 km2 (15,009 sq mi) |
|1,200 m (3,900 ft) |
|50/km2 (100/sq mi) |
|EET (UTC+2) |
• Summer (DST)
|EEST (UTC+3) |
|(+90) 332 |
Konya (Turkish pronunciation: ; Greek: Ικόνιον Ikónion, Latin: Iconium) is a city in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. It is the seventh most populous city in Turkey. As of 2011, the Konya Metropolitan Municipality had a population close to 1.1 million. Konya is an economically and industrially developed city.
Konya was historically the capital of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate and the Karamanids. The Neolithic settlement of Çatalhöyük in Konya Province was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2012. It is now the capital of Konya Province. Contents
- 1 History
- 1.1 Etymology
- 1.2 Ancient history
- 1.3 Seljuk era
- 1.4 Karamanid era
- 1.5 Ottoman era
- 1.6 Turkish War of Independence
- 1.7 Republic era
- 2 Government
- 3 Geography
- 4 Education
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transportation
- 6.1 Bus
- 6.2 Tram
- 6.3 Railway
- 6.4 Airport
- 7 Notable people
- 8 Main sights
- 9 Culture
- 10 Twin towns
- 11 International relations
- 12 See also
- 13 References and notes
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
Konya, was known in classical antiquity and during the medieval period as Ἰκόνιον (Ikónion) in Greek (with regular Medieval Greek apheresis Kónio(n)) and as Iconium in Latin. This name is commonly explained as a derivation from εἰκών (icon), as an ancient Greek legend ascribed its name to the "eikon" (image), or the "gorgon''s (Medusa''s) head", with which Perseus vanquished the native population before founding the city. In some historic English texts, the city''s name appears as Konia or Koniah. Ancient historyHercules Sarcophagus (ca. 250–260 AD) at the Konya Archaeological Museum
Excavations have shown that the region was inhabited during the Late Copper Age, around 3000 BC. The city came under the influence of the Hittites around 1500 BC. These were overtaken by the Sea Peoples around 1200 BC.
The Phrygians established their kingdom in central Anatolia in the 8th century BC. Xenophon describes Iconium, as the city was called, as the last city of Phrygia. The region was overwhelmed by Cimmerian invaders c. 690 BC. It was later part of the Persian Empire, until Darius III was defeated by Alexander the Great in 333 BC.
Alexander''s empire broke up shortly after his death and the town came under the rule of Seleucus I Nicator. During the Hellenistic period the town was ruled by the kings of Pergamon. As Attalus III, the last king of Pergamon, was about to die without an heir, he bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman Republic. During the Roman Empire, under the rule of emperor Claudius, the city''s name was changed to Claudioconium, and during the rule of emperor Hadrianus to Colonia Aelia Hadriana.
Saint Paul and Barnabas preached in Iconium during the First Missionary Journey in about 47–48 AD (see Acts 14:1–5 and Acts 14:21), and Paul and Silas probably visited it again during the Second Missionary Journey in about 50 (see Acts 16:2). In Christian legend, it was also the birthplace of Saint Thecla.
During the Byzantine Empire the town was destroyed several times by Arab invaders in the 7th–9th centuries. Seljuk era Main article: Anatolian Seljuk SultanateInce Minaret Medrese (1279) in Konya
The Seljuks unsuccessfully attempted to conquer the area in the Battle of Iconium (1069). A period of chaos overwhelmed Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, won by the Seljuks.
The city was conquered by the Seljuk Turks in 1084. From 1097 to 1243 it was the capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. It was briefly occupied by the Crusaders Godfrey of Bouillon (August 1097), and Frederick Barbarossa (May 18, 1190) after the Battle of Iconium (1190). The area was retaken by the Turks.
The name of the town was changed to Konya by Mesud I in 1134.Established in 1273, the Sufi Mevlevi Order and its Whirling Dervishes are among the renowned symbols of Konya and Turkey.
Konya reached the height of its wealth and influence in the second half of the 12th century when the Seljuk sultans of Rum also subdued the Anatolian beyliks to their east, especially that of the Danishmends, thus establishing their rule over virtually all of eastern Anatolia, as well as acquiring several port towns along the Mediterranean (including Alanya) and the Black Sea (including Sinop) and even gaining a momentary foothold in Sudak, Crimea. This golden age lasted until the first decades of the 13th century.
By the 1220s, the city was filled with refugees from the Khwarezmid Empire, fleeing the advance of the Mongol Empire. Sultan Kayqubad I fortified the town and built a palace on top of the citadel. In 1228 he invited Bahaeddin Veled and his son Rumi, the founder of the Mevlevi order, to settle in Konya.
In 1243, following the Seljuk defeat in the Battle of Köse Dağ, Konya was captured by the Mongols as well. The city remained the capital of the Seljuk sultans, vassalized to the Ilkhanate until the end of the century. Karamanid era Main article: Karamanids
Following the fall of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate in 1307, Konya was made the capital of a Turkish beylik (emirate); which lasted until 1322 when the city was captured by the neighbouring Beylik of Karamanoğlu. In 1420, the Beylik of Karamanoğlu fell to the Ottoman Empire and, in 1453, Konya was made the provincial capital of Karaman Eyalet. Ottoman era Main articles: Ottoman Empire, Karaman Eyalet and Vilayet of Konya16th century Konya carpet, in the LACMA collections.
During Ottoman rule, Konya was administered by the Sultan''s sons (Şehzade), starting with Şehzade Mustafa and Şehzade Cem (the sons of Sultan Mehmed II), and later the future Sultan Selim II. Between 1483 and 1864, Konya was the administrative capital of Karaman Eyalet. During the Tanzimat period, as part of the vilayet system introduced in 1864, Konya became the seat of the larger Vilayet of Konya which replaced Karaman Eyalet. Turkish War of Independence
Konya had a major air base during the Turkish War of Independence. In 1922, the Air Force was renamed as the Inspectorate of Air Forces and headquartered in Konya. The Third Air Wing of the 1st Air Force Command is based at Konya Air Base The wing controls Boeing 737 AEW&C Peace Eagle aircraft of the Turkish Air Force. Republic era
Konya was a center for agriculture at the turn of the 20th century. Since the late 20th century, the economy has diversified.
The Meram highway was constructed in 1950.
The first Konya National Exhibition and Fair was held in 1968.
The Koyunoğlu Museum was donated to the city in 1973 and it reopened in a new building. GovernmentKonya Metropolitan Municipality
The first local administration in Konya was founded in 1830. This administration was converted into a municipality in 1876. In March 1989, the municipality became a Metropolitan Municipality. As of that date, Konya had three central district municipalities (Meram, Selçuklu, Karatay) and a Metropolitan Municipality.
In 2012, the Metropolitan Municipality expanded to include non-central districts.
The mayor is elected in every five years. Geography
Konya has the largest area of any city of Turkey. It is located in the middle of Anatolia. It is the seventh most populated city in Turkey. Climate
Konya has a continental climate with cold, snowy winters and hot, dry summers. Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn.
Under Köppen''s climate classification the city has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk). Summers temperatures average 30 °C (86 °F). The highest temperature recorded in Konya was 40.6 °C (105 °F) on 30 July 2000. Winters average −4.2 °C (24 °F). The lowest temperature recorded was −25.8 °C (−14 °F) on 25 January 1989. Due to Konya''s high altitude and its dry summers, nightly temperatures in the summer months are cool. Precipitation levels are low, but precipitation can be observed throughout the year.
EducationLibrary of Selçuk University in Konya
Climate data for Konya (1960–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F)
|17.6 (63.7) ||21.6 (70.9) ||28.9 (84) ||31.5 (88.7) ||34.4 (93.9) ||37.2 (99) ||40.6 (105.1) ||39.6 (103.3) ||36.1 (97) ||31.6 (88.9) ||25.2 (77.4) ||20.4 (68.7) ||40.6 (105.1) |
Average high °C (°F)
|4.7 (40.5) ||6.8 (44.2) ||12.0 (53.6) ||17.4 (63.3) ||22.2 (72) ||26.8 (80.2) ||30.2 (86.4) ||30.0 (86) ||26.1 (79) ||20.0 (68) ||13.0 (55.4) ||6.7 (44.1) ||17.99 (64.39) |
Daily mean °C (°F)
|−0.2 (31.6) ||1.2 (34.2) ||5.7 (42.3) ||11.0 (51.8) ||15.7 (60.3) ||20.2 (68.4) ||23.6 (74.5) ||23.0 (73.4) ||18.6 (65.5) ||12.5 (54.5) ||6.1 (43) ||1.8 (35.2) ||11.6 (52.89) |
Average low °C (°F)
|−4.1 (24.6) ||−3.3 (26.1) ||0.0 (32) ||4.5 (40.1) ||8.6 (47.5) ||12.9 (55.2) ||16.2 (61.2) ||15.7 (60.3) ||11.2 (52.2) ||6.1 (43) ||0.8 (33.4) ||−2.2 (28) ||5.53 (41.97) |
Record low °C (°F)
|−25.8 (−14.4) ||−26.5 (−15.7) ||−15.8 (3.6) ||−8.6 (16.5) ||−1.2 (29.8) ||3.2 (37.8) ||7.5 (45.5) ||6.6 (43.9) ||1.2 (34.2) ||−7.6 (18.3) ||−20.0 (−4) ||−22.4 (−8.3) ||−26.5 (−15.7) |
Precipitation mm (inches)
|35.3 (1.39) ||28.2 (1.11) ||27.1 (1.067) ||34.0 (1.339) ||43.6 (1.717) ||23.2 (0.913) ||6.9 (0.272) ||5.6 (0.22) ||11.2 (0.441) ||31.3 (1.232) ||33.1 (1.303) ||44.8 (1.764) ||324.3 (12.768) |
Avg. rainy days
|9.7 ||8.8 ||8.7 ||9.6 ||10.6 ||6.5 ||2.8 ||2.4 ||3.5 ||6.7 ||7.0 ||10.0 ||86.3 |
|76 ||72 ||62 ||55 ||53 ||48 ||41 ||39 ||47 ||58 ||70 ||78 ||58.3 |
Mean monthly sunshine hours
|96.1 ||126 ||189.1 ||207 ||266.6 ||312 ||347.2 ||341 ||288 ||220.1 ||150 ||93 ||2,636.1 |
|Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü |
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory |
Konya ranks among the nation''s top 10 cities for the average score of high school graduates. There are various elementary and secondary schools in the province. The Meram Fen Lisesi is among Turkey''s first-tier science high schools.
Konya is one of the few cities to contain more than 100,000 college students. Selçuk University had the largest number of students, 76,080, of any public university in Turkey during the 2008-09 academic year. It was founded in 1975. The other public university is Necmettin Erbakan University which was established in Konya in 2010.
Private colleges in Konya include the KTO Karatay University and Mevlana University. EconomyThe 42-floor Seljuk Tower (2006) in Konya
The city ranks among the Anatolian Tigers. There are a number of industrial parks. In 2012 Konya''s exports reached 130 countries. A number of Turkish industrial conglomerates, such as Kombassan Holding, have their headquarters in Konya.
While agriculture-based industries play a role, the city''s economy has evolved into a center for the manufacturing of components for the automotive industry; machinery manufacturing; agricultural tools; casting industry; plastic paint and chemical industry; construction materials; paper and packing industry; processed foods; textiles; and leather industry. TransportationA TCDD HT65000 on the Ankara–Konya line of the Turkish State RailwaysA Škoda 28 T tram produced for the Konya Metropolitan MunicipalityBus
The bus station has connections to a range of destinations, including Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir. Tram
Konya has an tramway network in the city center, on which the Škoda 28 T trams are being used. Railway
Konya is connected to Ankara, Eskişehir and Istanbul via the high-speed railway services of the Turkish State Railways. High-speed trains (Yüksek Hızlı Tren) operate between Ankara and Konya. Airport
Konya Airport is a public airport and military airbase that''s also used by NATO. In 2006, Konya Airport served 2,924 aircraft and 262,561 passengers. Notable people
Main sightsAlaeddin Mosque (1235) in Konya
- Tertius of Iconium, the amanuensis who wrote down Paul the Apostle''s Epistle to the Romans
- Ibn Arabi, the Sufi and Islamic philosopher, visited Konya in 1207 at the invitation of the Seljuk governor of that time and married the mother of his disciple Sadreddin Konevi.
- Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, also called Mawlana Balkhi or "Mevlâna", was the founder of the Sufi Mevlevi order (known for the Whirling Dervishes). He spent the last fifty years of his life in Konya. His tomb is located here.
- Hazrat Shah Jalal was born in 1271 in Konya.
- Nasreddin Hodja died in Konya in the 13th century.
- Orkut Büyükkökten, a software engineer who developed the social networking service Orkut, was born in 1975 in Konya.
- Ahmet Davutoğlu, Turkish Prime Minister, was born on 26 February 1959 in Konya.
CultureEtli ekmek is a local dish of KonyaMevlana Museum (1274) in Konya
- Mevlana Museum, formerly the tekke of Mevlana
- Alaeddin Mosque
- Ince Minaret Medrese—Museum
- Karatay Medrese—Museum
- Aziziye Mosque
- Konya Ethnography Museum
- Konya Archaeological Museum
- Atatürk''s House Museum
- İzzet Koyunoğlu City Museum
- St. Paul''s Catholic Church—at Alaeddin Hill
- Seljuk Tower, the tallest building in Konya
Konya was the final home of Rumi (Mevlana), whose tomb is in the city. In 1273, his followers in Konya established the Mevlevi Sufi order of Islam and became known as the Whirling Dervishes. Konya has the reputation of being one of the more religiously conservative metropolitan centers in Turkey. It was once known as the "citadel of Islam" and its inhabitants are still comparatively more devout than those from other cities.
Konya produced Turkish carpets that were exported to Europe during the Renaissance. These expensive, richly patterned textiles were draped over tables, beds, or chests to proclaim the wealth and status of their owners, and were often included in the contemporary oil paintings as symbols of the wealth of the painter''s clients.
A Turkish folk song is named "Konyalım", making reference to a loved one from Konya.
The local cuisine of Konya includes dishes made of bulgur wheat and lamb meat. One of the renowned dishes of the city is etli ekmek, which is similar to lahmacun and pizza. Twin towns Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in Turkey International relations
Konya is twinned with: