Margiana was a satrapy in the Persian Empire located on an oasis in the Karakum desert, modern Marv in the southeast of Turkmenistan.Margiana was situated on the boards of the river Murghab; this river, which was called Margosh by ancient Iranians, has its sources in the mountains of Afghanistan and flows to the north, into the Karakum desert, where it divides into several branches that disappear in the desert sands. The fertile delta was called Margiana and was already occupied by farmers in about 2200-1700 BCE; their Bronze Age culture is known as the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex; also known as the Oxus civilization, it is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia,The Bactria-Margiana complex has also attracted attention as a candidate for those looking for the material counterparts to the Indo-Iranians, a major branch that split off from the Proto-Indo-Europeans.Margiana must have been conquered by the Persian king Cyrus the Great. This is not written in our sources, but is implied by the fact that he fought against the Massagetes, a nomad tribe living beyond Margiana.In March 522 BCE, a Magian named Gaumata seized power in the Achaemenid Empire, claiming to be the brother of the legitimate king Cambyses. Immediately, Cambyses advanced to the usurper, but he died before he reached Persia; the false Smerdis was able to rule for several months. However, Cambyses' relative Dariush, together with six Persian noblemen, killed the usurper (29 September). Darius became king and faced a serious crisis: nearly all provinces of the Achaemenid Empire revolted. The most important rebellion was that of the Medes, whose leader was king Phraortes. His rebellion spread to the north to Armenia and to the east to Parthia. Even further to the east, the oasis of Margiana revolted.The leader of the Margiana insurrection was one Frada. Because Margiana was not a very important part of the Achaemenid Empire, no action was undertaken. At the end of the spring of 521, however, the Medes had been defeated and in July the Parthian rebellion had been suppressed; The satrap of Bactria, Dadarshi, advanced against the rebels, which he defeated on 28 December 521 after a march of three hundred kilometers through the Karakum desert.In the Behistun inscription, which was made immediately after the above mentioned events, Dadarshi's victory is presented as if it was just as important as the victories over the rebels in Babylonia or Media. One version of the text mentions 55.423 Margians killed and 6.972 taken captive, which is probably exaggerated.Around 290-280 B.C., the two eastern provinces of Margiana and Aria suffered an invasion by nomads. But the invasion was repelled, and the nomads were pushed back beyond the Jaxartes. Demodamas, a general to the first two Seleucid kings, crossed the river and even put up altars to Apollo, ancestor of the dynasty. In 53 BCE, Anti (Wikipedia) - Margu (Redirected from Margiana) Margiana, ca. 300 BCE.
Margu (Latin: Margiana from Greek: Μαργιανή) was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire. The ruler who lost a Bactrian revolt is mentioned as a Margian in the Behistun inscriptions of ca. 515 BCE by Darius Hystaspis. It is not mentioned as a satrapy in the inscription, because it was included in a larger satrapy of the empire. It was located in the valley of the river Murghab which has its sources in the mountains of Afghanistan, and passes through Murghab District in modern Afghanistan, and then reaches the oasis of Merv in modern Turkmenistan. Merv was the centere of Margiana.
Tags:Achaemenid, Achaemenid Empire, Afghanistan, Archaeological, Aria, Armenia, Asia, Babylonia, Bactria, Bronze Age, Cambyses, Central Asia, Cyrus, Cyrus the Great, Dadarshi, Dariush, Frada, Gaumata, Greek, Karakum, Magian, Margian, Margiana, Margu, Marv, Massagetes, Medes, Media, Mehrdad, Merv, Oxus, Oxus civilization, Parthia, Parthian, Persia, Persian, Persian Empire, Phraortes, Seleucid, Smerdis, Turkmenistan, Wikipedia