Mohammad Ali Foroughi was an Iranian politician and Prime Minister. He was born in 1877 in Tehran. He was the son of Mohammad Hossein Khan Foroughi Zokaolmolk who was a renown poet. The title Zokaolmolk was given to his father by Naseroddin Shah Qajar. Mohammad Ali Foroughi studied at Darolfonoon. He entered the Ministry of Publications and Translations while his father was the minister. He worked as translator of French and Arabic for a while. Because of his friendship with Mirza Molkom Khan, he saw less attention during last years of Naseroddin Shah. But he found more opportunities to publish his ideas during Mozaffaroddin Shah’s reign and he got the license to publish Tarbiyat(training), the first private newspaper in Iran. Tarbiyat Newspaper had great influence on intellectual society and sometimes used to go too far in terms of secularism promoting France as the symbol of civilization.He was a famous educated Freemason supported by Britain. Therefore, he could earn success easily in political arena. In 1907 he became director of Tehran School of Political Sciences. He entered Majlis as representative In 1909. He had a crucial power in Constitutional Monarchy Movement and was Reza Shah’s first and last Prime Minister.One of the proofs of his relationship with Britain is his payments to SPR forces imposed on Iran, despite opposition from Moshiroddoleh, Ghavamossaltaneh and Mostofiolmamalek. He was known to be a powerful lobbyist.Mohammad Mosaddegh and Ayatollah Modarres were representatives of the minority at Majlis 6th term who opposed Hasan Vosough and Mohammad Ali Foroughi’s admission to Cabinet of Ministers.He played a very crucial role after Reza Shah’s resignation, helping his son Mohammad Reza Shah ascend the throne.Foroughi died in Dec, 1942 at the age of 67. (Wikipedia) - Mohammad Ali Foroughi
Mohammad-Ali ForoughiPersian: محمدعلی فروغی ذكاءالملک
35th, 38th & 42nd Prime Minister of Iran
|In office 1 November 1925 – 13 June 1926 |
|Rezā Shāh |
|Mostowfi ol-Mamalek |
|In office 18 September 1933 – 3 December 1935 |
|Reza Shah |
|Mehdi Qoli Hedayat |
|Mahmoud Jam |
|In office 27 August 1941 – 9 March 1942 |
|Reza Shah Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi |
|Ali Mansur |
|Ali Soheili |
|1877 Tehran, Iran |
|1942 Tehran, Iran |
|Revival Party |
|Tehran School of Political Sciences |
| ||This article contains Persian text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols. |
Mohammad Ali Foroughi Zoka-ol-Molk (1877 – 1942) (Persian: محمدعلی فروغی ذكاءالملک) was a teacher, diplomat, writer, politician and Prime Minister of Iran. Contents
Early life and education
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Career
- 3 Books
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Sources
- 7 External links
Foroughi was born in Tehran to a merchant family from Isfahan. His ancestor, Mirza Abutorab was the representative of Isfahan in Mugan plain during Nader Shah Afshar''s coronation. His grandfather, Mohammad Mehdi Arbab Isfahani, was amongst the most influential merchants of Isfahan and was skilled in history and geography. His father Mohammad Hosein Foroughi was the translator of the Shah from Arabic and French. He was also a poet and published a newspaper called Tarbiat. Naser al-Din Shah Qajar nicknamed Mohammad Hosein, Foroughi, after hearing a poem that he had written. Many sources alleged that Foroughi''s ancestors were Baghdadi Jews who came to Isfahan and converted to Islam. During occupation of Iran in the second world war, Nazi Germany often emphasized this alleged Jewish ancestry in radio broadcasts. During his early life, Foroughi studied at the élite Dar ul-Funun (House of Sciences) in Tehran. Career
In 1907, Foroughi''s father died, and thus Foroughi inherited his father''s title of Zoka-ol-Molk. During the same year, Foroughi became the dean of the College of Political Sciences. In 1909, he entered politics as a member of Majlis (Parliament), representing Tehran. He subsequently became speaker of the house and later minister in several cabinets as well as prime minister three times and once as the acting prime minister when Reza Khan resigned as prime minister to take up the crown as Reza Shah. In 1912, he became the president of the Iranian Supreme Court. Later he was appointed prime minister and dismissed in 1935 due to the father of his son-in-law''s, Muhammad Vali Asadi, alleged participation in the riot in Mashhad against the reforms implemented by Reza Shah.
However, later Foroughi regained his status and became Prime Minister during the initial phase of Muhammad Reza Pahlavi''s reign. Foroughi as a prime minister was instrumental in having Mohammad Reza Pahlavi proclaimed as king after his father, Reza Shah, was forced to abdicate (16 September 1941) and exiled by the allied forces of the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union during World War II. After the collapse of his cabinet, he was named Minister of Court and then named ambassador of Iran to the United States of America, but he died in Tehran at the age of 65 before he could assume the post. Foroughi is known to have been a freemason.Foroughi with Ali Mansour, Mostafa Gholibayat, Aliakbar Davar and Mahmoud Jam.BooksForoughi at the court of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
Foroughi wrote numerous books, includingThe History of Iran, The History of the Ancient Peoples of The East, A Short History of Ancient Rome, Constitutional Etiquette, A Concise Course in Physics, Far-fetched Thoughts, The Wisdom of Socrates, The History of Philosophy in Europe, My Message to the Academy of Language (Farhangestan), The Rules of Oratory or The Technique of Speech Making, a book on the Shahnameh (The Book of Kings).
In addition to this, he prepared scholarly editions of the works of Saadi, Hafez, Rumi, Omar Khayyam and Ferdowsi.
His son Mohsen Foroughi was a renowned architect who completed his studies in France and designed Niavarān Palace Complex, which is situated in the northern part of Tehran, Iran. It consists of several buildings and a museum. The Sahebqraniyeh Palace of the time of Nasir al-Din Shah of Qajar dynasty is also inside this complex. The main Niavaran Palace, completed in 1968, was the primary residence of the last Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the Imperial family until the Iranian Revolution.Franz Malekebrahimian worked directly under Mohsen Foruoghi in implementation and maintenance of the Palace.
Tags:1968, Afshar, Ali Soheili, Arabic, Ayatollah, Britain, Constitutional Monarchy, Constitutional Monarchy Movement, Darolfonoon, Europe, Ferdowsi, France, French, Germany, Ghavamossaltaneh, Hafez, History of Iran, Hossein Khan, Iran, Iranian, Iranian Revolution, Isfahan, Isfahani, Islam, Jam, Jewish, Khan, Khayyam, Majlis, Mashhad, Mehdi, Mirza, Modarres, Mohammad Ali Foroughi, Mohammad Mosaddegh, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza Shah, Monarchy, Mosaddegh, Moshiroddoleh, Mostofiolmamalek, Mozaffaroddin Shah, Nader Shah, Naseroddin Shah, Nazi, Nazi Germany, Niavaran, Omar Khayyam, Pahlavi, Parliament, Persian, Physics, Prime Minister, Prime Minister of Iran, Qajar, Revolution, Reza Khan, Reza Pahlavi, Reza Shah, Rome, Rumi, SPR, Shah, Shahnameh, Soviet, Soviet Union, Tehran, Tehran School of Political Sciences, United Kingdom, United States, Wikipedia, World War II, Zokaolmolk