Persian calligraphy

خطاطی فارسی

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Updated:Sunday 12th October 2014

Persian calligraphy Definition

(Wikipedia) - Persian calligraphy Calligraphy
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Persian calligraphy (Persian: خوشنویسی فارسی‎) is the calligraphy of the Persian writing system. It is one of the most revered arts throughout Persian history.

Contents
  • 1 History
    • 1.1 History of Nas’taliq
    • 1.2 History of cursive Nas''taliq
  • 2 Contemporary Persian calligraphy
    • 2.1 Modernist movement
    • 2.2 Genres
  • 3 Most notable figures
  • 4 See also
  • 5 External links

HistoryExample showing Nastaʿlīq''s proportion rules.History of Nas’taliqChalipa panel, Mir Emad.Persian Calligraphy on the Taj MahalCalligraphy of Persian poems on large pishtaqPersian calligraphy

After initiation of Islam in the 7th century, Persians adapted the Arabic alphabet to Persian and developed the contemporary Persian alphabet. Arabic alphabet has 28 characters. An additional four letters were added by Iranians , which resulted in the 32 letters currently present in the Persian alphabet.

Around one thousand years ago, Ibn Muqlah (Persian: ابن مقله بيضاوی شيرازی‎) and his brother created six genres of Iranian calligraphy, namely "Tahqiq", "Reyhan", "Sols", "Naskh", "Toqi" and "Reqa". These genres were common for four centuries in Persia. In the 7th century (Hijri calendar), Hassan Farsi Kateb combined "Naskh" and "Reqah" styles and invented a new genre of Persian calligraphy, named "Ta''liq". In the 14th century, Mir Ali Tabrizi combined two major scripts of his time i.e. Naskh and Taliq and created the most attractive Persian Calligraphy style, "Nas’taliq". In past 500 years Iranian calligraphy called Nastaʿlīq (also anglicized as Nastaleeq; Persian: نستعلیق‎ nastaʿlīq) is one of the main script styles used in writing the Perso-Arabic script, and is traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.

History of cursive Nas''taliq

Morteza Gholi Khan Shamlou and Mohammad Shafi Heravi created a new genre called cursive Nastaʿlīq Shekasteh Nastaʿlīq in the 17 th century. Almost a century later, a Abdol-Majid Taleqani, who was a prominent artist at the time, brought this genre to its highest level. This calligraphy style is based on the same rules as Nas’taliq. However, it has a few significant differences: it provides more flexible movements and it is slightly more stretched and curved. Yadollah Kaboli is one of the most prominent contemporary calligraphers within this style.

Contemporary Persian calligraphy

In 1950, the Iran''s Association of Calligraphers was founded by Hossein Mirkhani, Ali Akbar Kaveh, Ebrahim Bouzari, Hassan Mirkhani and Mehdi Baiani. For an overview of persian calligraphy''s development within Afghanistan, see "Calligraphy during last two centuries in Afghanistan" (1964), by Azizuddin Vakili.

Modernist movement

Zendeh Roudi, Jalil Rasouli, Parviz Tanavoli, and Masih Zad use Persian calligraphy and Rumi poetry in dress designing.

Genres
  • Nasta''liq script
  • Shekasteh Nastaʿlīq (Cursive Nasta''liq)
  • Naghashi-khat (Painting-Calligraphy combined)

Most notable figures
  • Mirza Ahmad Neyrizi
  • Mir Ali Tabrizi
  • Mir Emad
  • Mirza Buzurg-i-Nuri
  • Mishkín-Qalam

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