See Also:Battle of al-Qādisiyyah

ID:6532 Section: Time

Updated:Sunday 28th September 2008

Qadesiya Definition

Qadesiya was a small village by Euphrates near Kufa.The Battle of Ghadesiya was the decisive engagement between the Arab Muslim army and the Sassanid Persian army during the first period of Muslim expansion. It resulted in the Islamic conquest of Persia, and was the key to conquest of Iraq. During Prophet Mohammad's lifetime, Persia was ruled by Emperor Khosrau 2nd. Khosrau waged a war against the Byzantines to avenge Maurice's death. Therefore, the Sassanid army captured Syria, Egypt and Anatolia and the True Cross was carried away in triumph. The early defeat and eventual victory of the Romans was supposedly foretold in the Quran in Surah Ar-Room, The Romans:Emperor Heraclius, who succeeded Phocas in 610, united the Byzantine Empire and began a war of re-conquest. He successfully regained territory lost to the Sassanid Empire. He also defeated the Persians at the final and decisive Battle of Nineveh and advanced towards Ctesiphon. Khosrau fled, and Heraclius ordered his armies to retreat only after a pact was signed with the newly appointed Emperor Ghobad 2nd. According to the pact, the True Cross would be given back to Heraclius and all Byzantine territory that the Persians had captured would be evacuated.Khosrau 2 was murdered in his palace by his son Qobad 2 in 629. Qobad put his 18 brothers to death and began negotiations with Heraclius, but died after a reign of a few months. Ardeshir 3d (c. 621–630), son of Qobad (628), was raised to the throne as a boy of 7 years, but was killed 18 months later by his general Farrokhan. Farrokhan was called Shahrbaraz, a title meaning "the Boar of the Empire". Shahrbaraz took Damascus and Jerusalem from the Byzantine Empire in 613 and 614 respectively, during the Byzantine-Persian War when the True Cross was carried away in triumph. Following the Persian surrender, Shahrbaraz was heavily involved in the intrigues of the Sassanid court. He made peace with Heraclius and returned a relic that was accepted as the True Cross.In April 630, he failed to deal with the invasion of Armenia by a Khazar-Gokturk force under Chorpan Tarkhan. Then on 9 June 630 Shahrbaraz was slain, and succeeded by Pourandokht, the daughter of the King Khosrau 2 (590–628). She was one of only two women to sit on the throne of the Sassanid dynasty, the other being her sister Azarmidokht. She was the 26th sovereign Monarch of Persia, from 629 to 631. When Purandokht ascended to the throne after the murder of the general Shahrbaraz, who had killed her nephew Ardeshir 3, she was made Queen of Persia on the understanding that she would vacate the throne on Yazdgerd 3 attaining majority. She attempted to bring stability to the empire by the implementation of justice, reconstruction of the infrastructure, lowering of taxes, minting coins, and a peace treaty with the Byzantine Empire. She also appointed Ros

Tags:Anatolia, Arab, Ardeshir, Ardeshir 3, Armenia, Byzantine, Ctesiphon, Damascus, Egypt, Euphrates, Ghadesiya, Ghobad, Gokturk, Heraclius, Iraq, Islamic, Jerusalem, Khazar, Khosrau, Kufa, Muslim, Nineveh, Persia, Persian, Pourandokht, Prophet Mohammad, Qadesiya, Quran, Sassanid, Shahrbaraz, Syria, Yazdgerd, Yazdgerd 3

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