By Turkmenchai Agreement on Feb, 22, 1828 Russians separated many northern provinces from Iran. This treaty brought an end to the second Russo-Persian wars 1827-1828.The treaty was signed on February 21, 1828, by Haj Mirza Abolhasan Khan and Allahyar Khan (Asefoddoleh), chancellor of Fathali Shah from Iran's side, and General Ivan Paskievich representing Russia.As was the case for the Gulistan Treaty, Iran was forced to sign the treaty by Russia, as it had no other alternative after Abbas Mirza's defeat. The Russian general had threatened Fathali Shah to conquer Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed. By this treaty:By Article 4 of the treaty, Persia renounced all claims over the Erivan khanate (most of present-day central Armenia), the Nakhchivan khanate (most of the present-day Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan), the Talysh khanate, the Ordubad and Mughan regions (now also part of Azerbaijan), in addition to all lands annexed by Russia in the Gulistan Treaty.The Aras River is assigned the new borderline between Iran and Russia, from Ararat Castle to the outlet of the river at Astara.By Article 6 of the treaty, Iran promised to pay Russia 10 korur in gold or 20 million silver rubles (in 1828 currency).By Article 7 of the treaty, Russia promised to support Abbas Mirza as the heir to the throne of Persia after Fathali Shah died.By Article 8 of the treaty, Iranian ships lost full rights to navigate all of the Caspian Sea and her coasts, henceforth given to Russia.Iran recognized Capitulation rights for Russians in Iran.By Article 10, Russia gained the right to send consulate envoys to anywhere in Iran it wishes.Iran is forced to sign economic treaties with Russia as Russia specifies. Iran was forced to sign economic treaties with Russia as Russia specified.By Article 13, prisoners of war were exchanged.Iran officially apologized for breaking its promises made in the Gulistan Treaty.By Article 15, Fathali Shah promised not to prosecute any Khanate secessionist movements in the north-western region.Iran recognized capitulation rights for Russians in Iran.Iran officially sees this and the preceding Gulistan Treaty as one of Iran's most humiliating treaties ever signed. The treaty is also regarded by Iranians as the main reason why Fathali Shah is seen as one of Iran's most incompetent rulers in memory.
Tags:Abbas Mirza, Allahyar, Ararat, Aras, Aras River, Armenia, Astara, Azerbaijan, Capitulation, Caspian, Caspian Sea, Erivan, Fathali Shah, Gulistan, Iran, Iranian, Khan, Khanate, Mirza, Persia, Persian, Russia, Russian, Russo-Persian, Shah, Talysh, Tehran, Turkmenchai