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فارسی »» The Iranian History Era :20 Hotaki Dynasty (1722 - 1729) AD


March, 8, 1722 A.D.:
Safavid Army Defeated at the Battle of Gulnabad


The Battle of Gulnabad (Sunday, March 8, 1722) was fought between the military forces from Afghanistan and the army of the Safavid Empire. The battle resulted in Afghanistan, under Shah Mahmud, winning and controlling much of Persia. It further cemented the eventual fall of the Safavid dynasty. One... Read Full Article:


March, 8, 1722 A.D.:
Royal Army Defeated By Ghilzai Chieftains


The uprising of Mahmoud Ghandahari which was provoked by India was the prelude to the downfall of the Safavid dynasty. While Sultan Hossein was entertaining in his harem, tribal Afghan forces could easily proceed towards west to the heart of the Persian empire with no resistance. The king marched ag... Read Full Article:


August, 23, 1722 A.D.:
Darband Captured By Russians


The declining Safavi dynasty gave Russians the opportunity to invade Persian territory. A quest that challenged Persian hegemony in the region and later ended with Iranians losing sovereignty. Taking advantage of civil disorder in Iran, Peter the great, deployed 22,000 men and his newly built Caspia... Read Full Article:


October, 12, 1722 A.D.:
Epic Fall Of Safavid Capital Isfahan


After a long siege Isfahan surrendered to Afghan forces. The people of Kandahar had been loyal Iranians until 1709 when due to weakness in leadership of King Sultan Hossein, injustice and corruption made them stage uprisings asking for autonomy. After invading Isfahan, Amir Mahmoud killed more than ... Read Full Article:


April, 12, 1723 A.D.:
Mir Mahmoud Forces Defeated In Qazvin


After the fall of the Safavi dynasty and capture of capital Isfahan, crown prince Tahmasp Mirza fled to Qazvin and proclaimed king with crown name Shah Tahmasp 2. Amir Mahmoud of Kandahar who had imprisoned most of the royal family, sent his army to suppress the uprising. His army was trapped in Qaz... Read Full Article:


June, 26, 1723 A.D.:
Russians Capture Baku


In the midst of a civil war in Iran and circumstances that led to fall of the Safavi dynasty, Russian troops took advantage of the situation and captured the city of Baku. Meanwhile most Iranian territories became the stage of chaos and human tragedies that followed the capture of capital Isfahan by... Read Full Article:


September, 12, 1723 A.D.:
Iran Surrenders Gilan And Mazandaran


In the midst of a turmoil that started with invasion of Hotaki warlords into Iran, Isfahan, the Safavid capital fell on Oct, 12, 1722. Meanwhile, Russians and Ottomans used the opportunity to invade Caucasia. On August 23, 1722 the Russian army captured strategic city of Derbent. With little or no ... Read Full Article:


August, 31, 1724 A.D.:
Ottomans Capture Hamedan


As Afghans were plundering the cities of Iran and Russians advanced to take all Iranian provinces along the Caspian Sea, Ottomans also sought the opportunity to take a bite of the dead Safavid Empire. After defeating the remaining Safavid garrisons, the Ottomans captured Hamedan. The Azerbaijan fron... Read Full Article:


October, 4, 1724 A.D.:
Ottomans And Russians Divide Iran


After the fall of the Safavid Empire and during a period of chaos inside Iran, Russians and Ottomans capture northern Iranian territories. Negotiations started between the two states on Jan, 15, 1724. With French ambassador's mediation an agreement was reached on June, 24th by which Ottomans took Ge... Read Full Article:


November, 29, 1727 A.D.:
Mashhad Liberated By Nader's Army


Shah Tahmasp was wandering in Margiana when he heard Nader's victory over a usurper named Melek in Khorasan but he knew that Nader's army was not big enough to set a siege against Melek's artillery. He sent a messenger inviting Nader to accompany his forces. Nader set out instantly, and met the Shah... Read Full Article:


July, 27, 1728 A.D.:
Nader Begins Ariana Expedition


On July, 27, 1728, Nader Shah set out upon an expedition against the Afghan warlords, who had penetrated into Khorasan. He took the Behadin fortress in Sep, 9th and captured Sancan castle on 22nd when he heard the news of 7-8 thousand Afghan soldiers marching from Herat. Nader Shah used this opportu... Read Full Article:


September, 20, 1729 A.D.:
The Battle Of Damghan


When Ashraf Afghan heard that Nader had set out for Herat, he thought of it as a good opportunity to plunder Mashhad. Nader's army quickly reached Khorasan on July, 13, 1729 and he set his artillery in the field and waited. But the Ashraf army did not dare attack Mashhad and they kept on plundering ... Read Full Article:


December, 20, 1729 A.D.:
Tahmasp Restored To Throne In Isfahan


After Nader's decisive victory at Mehmandoost, Nader came in sight of the enemy stationed at an advantagous position on a hill near Isfahan on the evening of Nov, 12. Nader sent his best Kurdish men for surveillence. They slew about four hundred of the rebels, and returned at night with several pris... Read Full Article:


July, 27, 1730 A.D.:
Afghan Prince Beseiges Mashhad


After Nader liberated Hamedan and Tabriz, he was moving his army towards Erivan when he heard the news that Prince Hossein had laid a siege on Mashhad. His brother Zoheireddoleh was ordered to avoid a battle with the Afghans: but he neglected the order and engaged the besiegers on Jul, 27, 1730. Aft... Read Full Article:


September, 15, 1731 A.D.:
Sultan Tahmasp 2. Defeated By Ottomans


In Nader's absence, Shah Tahmasp 2 decided to gain his part of the glory and attempted an unsuccessful attack on Erivan in March 1731. Without success, on his way back, he was intercepted by an Ottoman army who inflicted heavy loss on the Iranian army on Sep, 15th. Commanded by Ali Pasha, the Ottoma... Read Full Article:

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